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      Triple-negative breast cancer molecular subtyping and treatment progress

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          Abstract

          Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), a specific subtype of breast cancer that does not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), has clinical features that include high invasiveness, high metastatic potential, proneness to relapse, and poor prognosis. Because TNBC tumors lack ER, PR, and HER2 expression, they are not sensitive to endocrine therapy or HER2 treatment, and standardized TNBC treatment regimens are still lacking. Therefore, development of new TNBC treatment strategies has become an urgent clinical need. By summarizing existing treatment regimens, therapeutic drugs, and their efficacy for different TNBC subtypes and reviewing some new preclinical studies and targeted treatment regimens for TNBC, this paper aims to provide new ideas for TNBC treatment.

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          The blockade of immune checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy.

          Among the most promising approaches to activating therapeutic antitumour immunity is the blockade of immune checkpoints. Immune checkpoints refer to a plethora of inhibitory pathways hardwired into the immune system that are crucial for maintaining self-tolerance and modulating the duration and amplitude of physiological immune responses in peripheral tissues in order to minimize collateral tissue damage. It is now clear that tumours co-opt certain immune-checkpoint pathways as a major mechanism of immune resistance, particularly against T cells that are specific for tumour antigens. Because many of the immune checkpoints are initiated by ligand-receptor interactions, they can be readily blocked by antibodies or modulated by recombinant forms of ligands or receptors. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) antibodies were the first of this class of immunotherapeutics to achieve US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. Preliminary clinical findings with blockers of additional immune-checkpoint proteins, such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), indicate broad and diverse opportunities to enhance antitumour immunity with the potential to produce durable clinical responses.
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            Combined nivolumab and ipilimumab versus ipilimumab alone in patients with advanced melanoma: 2-year overall survival outcomes in a multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial.

            Results from phase 2 and 3 trials in patients with advanced melanoma have shown significant improvements in the proportion of patients achieving an objective response and prolonged progression-free survival with the combination of nivolumab (an anti-PD-1 antibody) plus ipilimumab (an anti-CTLA-4 antibody) compared with ipilimumab alone. We report 2-year overall survival data from a randomised controlled trial assessing this treatment in previously untreated advanced melanoma.
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              Olaparib in patients with recurrent high-grade serous or poorly differentiated ovarian carcinoma or triple-negative breast cancer: a phase 2, multicentre, open-label, non-randomised study.

              Olaparib (AZD2281) is a small-molecule, potent oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor. We aimed to assess the safety and tolerability of this drug in patients without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations with advanced triple-negative breast cancer or high-grade serous and/or undifferentiated ovarian cancer. In this phase 2, multicentre, open-label, non-randomised study, women with advanced high-grade serous and/or undifferentiated ovarian carcinoma or triple-negative breast cancer were enrolled and received olaparib 400 mg twice a day. Patients were stratified according to whether they had a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation or not. The primary endpoint was objective response rate by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST). All patients who received treatment were included in the analysis of toxic effects, and patients who had measurable lesions at baseline were included in the primary efficacy analysis. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00679783. 91 patients were enrolled (65 with ovarian cancer and 26 breast cancer) and 90 were treated between July 8, 2008, and Sept 24, 2009. In the ovarian cancer cohorts, 64 patients received treatment. 63 patients had target lesions and therefore were evaluable for objective response as per RECIST. In these patients, confirmed objective responses were seen in seven (41%; 95% CI 22-64) of 17 patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and 11 (24%; 14-38) of 46 without mutations. No confirmed objective responses were reported in patients with breast cancer. The most common adverse events were fatigue (45 [70%] of patients with ovarian cancer, 13 [50%] of patients with breast cancer), nausea (42 [66%] and 16 [62%]), vomiting (25 [39%] and nine [35%]), and decreased appetite (23 [36%] and seven [27%]). Our study suggests that olaparib is a promising treatment for women with ovarian cancer and further assessment of the drug in clinical trials is needed. AstraZeneca. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                yushicang@163.com
                Journal
                Breast Cancer Res
                Breast Cancer Res
                Breast Cancer Research : BCR
                BioMed Central (London )
                1465-5411
                1465-542X
                9 June 2020
                9 June 2020
                2020
                : 22
                : 61
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.410570.7, ISNI 0000 0004 1760 6682, Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Southwest Hospital, , Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), ; ChongQing, 400038 China
                [2 ]GRID grid.410570.7, ISNI 0000 0004 1760 6682, Institute of Pathology and Southwest Cancer Center, Southwest Hospital, , Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), ; ChongQing, 400038 China
                [3 ]GRID grid.419897.a, ISNI 0000 0004 0369 313X, Key Laboratory of Cancer Immunopathology, , Ministry of Education, ; ChongQing, 400038 China
                Article
                1296
                10.1186/s13058-020-01296-5
                7285581
                32517735
                730d5b06-f95d-4d24-94e2-85d700efbae1
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                History
                : 28 November 2019
                : 14 May 2020
                Funding
                Funded by: National Key Research and Development Program of China
                Award ID: 2016YFA0202104
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 81602730
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                triple-negative breast cancer,molecular subtype,therapeutic target,therapeutic regimen

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