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      Measuring parent food practices: a systematic review of existing measures and examination of instruments

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          Abstract

          During the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in development of instruments to measure parent food practices. Because these instruments often measure different constructs, or define common constructs differently, an evaluation of these instruments is needed. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify existing measures of parent food practices and to assess the quality of their development. The initial search used terms capturing home environment, parenting behaviors, feeding practices and eating behaviors, and was performed in October of 2009 using PubMed/Medline, PsychInfo, Web of knowledge (ISI), and ERIC, and updated in July of 2012. A review of titles and abstracts was used to narrow results, after which full articles were retrieved and reviewed. Only articles describing development of measures of parenting food practices designed for families with children 2-12 years old were retained for the current review. For each article, two reviewers extracted data and appraised the quality of processes used for instrument development and evaluation. The initial search yielded 28,378 unique titles; review of titles and abstracts narrowed the pool to 1,352 articles; from which 57 unique instruments were identified. The review update yielded 1,772 new titles from which14 additional instruments were identified. The extraction and appraisal process found that 49% of instruments clearly identified and defined concepts to be measured, and 46% used theory to guide instrument development. Most instruments (80%) had some reliability testing, with internal consistency being the most common (79%). Test-retest or inter-rater reliability was reported for less than half the instruments. Some form of validity evidence was reported for 84% of instruments. Construct validity was most commonly presented (86%), usually with analysis of associations with child diet or weight/BMI. While many measures of food parenting practices have emerged, particularly in recent years, few have demonstrated solid development methods. Substantial variation in items across different scales/constructs makes comparison between instruments extremely difficult. Future efforts should be directed toward consensus development of food parenting practices constructs and measures.

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          Confirmatory factor analysis of the Child Feeding Questionnaire: a measure of parental attitudes, beliefs and practices about child feeding and obesity proneness.

          The Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) is a self-report measure to assess parental beliefs, attitudes, and practices regarding child feeding, with a focus on obesity proneness in children. Confirmatory factor analysis tested a 7-factor model, which included four factors measuring parental beliefs related to child's obesity proneness, and three factors measuring parental control practices and attitudes regarding child feeding. Using a sample of 394 mothers and fathers, three models were tested, and the third model confirmed an acceptable fit, including correlated factors. Internal consistencies for the seven factors were above 0.70. With minor changes, this same 7-factor model was also confirmed in a second sample of 148 mothers and fathers, and a third sample of 126 Hispanic mothers and fathers. As predicted, four of the seven factors were related to an independent measure of children's weight status, providing initial support for the validity of the instrument. The CFQ can be used to assess aspects of child-feeding perceptions, attitudes, and practices and their relationships to children's developing food acceptance patterns, the controls of food intake, and obesity. The CFQ is designed for use with parents of children ranging in age from about 2 to 11 years of age. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
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            Determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among children and adolescents: a review of the literature. Part I: quantitative studies

            Background In order to more effectively promote fruit and vegetable intake among children and adolescents, insight into determinants of intake is necessary. We conducted a review of the literature for potential determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in children and adolescents. Methods Papers were identified from Medline and PsycINFO by using all combinations of the search terms: "fruit(s) or vegetable(s)" and "children or adolescents". Quantitative research examining determinants of fruit and/or vegetable intake among children and adolescents aged 6–18 years were included. The selection and review process was conducted according to a four-step protocol resulting in information on country, population, design, methodology, theoretical basis, instrument used for measuring intake, statistical analysis, included independent variables, and effect sizes. Results Ninety-eight papers were included. A large number of potential determinants have been studied among children and adolescents. However, for many presumed determinants convincing evidence is lacking, mostly because of paucity of studies. The determinants best supported by evidence are: age, gender, socio-economic position, preferences, parental intake, and home availability/accessibility. Girls and younger children tend to have a higher or more frequent intake than boys and older children. Socio-economic position, preferences, parental intake, and home availability/accessibility are all consistently positively associated with intake. Conclusion The determinants most consistently supported by evidence are gender, age, socio-economic position, preferences, parental intake and home availability/accessibility. There is a need for internationally comparative, longitudinal, theory-based and multi-level studies taking both personal and environmental factors into account. This paper is published as part of the special Pro Children series in the International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. Please see [] for the relevant editorial.
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              Family correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

              To review associations between the family environment and young people's fruit and vegetable consumption. A systematic review. Published English-language (n 60) papers were identified using electronic databases and manual searches of personal files and reference lists. Observational research reporting a measure of fruit/vegetable intake for children (aged 6-11 years) and/or adolescents (aged 12-18 years) and at least one potential family correlate of dietary intake was included. Parental modelling and parental intake were consistently and positively associated with children's fruit and fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) consumption. There were also positive associations between home availability, family rules and parental encouragement and children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Parental intake was positively associated with adolescents' fruit and vegetable consumption. There were also positive associations between parental occupational status and adolescent fruit consumption and between parental education and adolescents' FJV consumption. Our findings highlight the importance of targeting the family environment for the promotion of healthy eating behaviours among children and adolescents. Future interventions should encourage parents to be positive role models by targeting parental intake and to create a supportive home environment through increased encouragement and availability of fruits and vegetables and employing rules to govern eating behaviours. For adolescents, indicators of family circumstances (e.g. parental education) should be used to identify target groups for interventions aimed at promoting healthy eating.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
                Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
                The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
                BioMed Central
                1479-5868
                2013
                20 May 2013
                : 10
                : 61
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1700 Martin L. King Jr. Blvd., CB 7426, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7426, USA
                [2 ]Prevention Research Center in St. Louis, Brown School, Washington University in St. Louis, 621 North Skinker Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63130-4838, USA
                [3 ]Clinical Trials Unit (CTRU), University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
                [4 ]Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2207 McGavran-Greenberg Hall, CB 7461, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461, USA
                Article
                1479-5868-10-61
                10.1186/1479-5868-10-61
                3681578
                23688157
                730f2fba-f2fe-4cee-bde0-11f59b7eea50
                Copyright ©2013 Vaughn et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                feeding,measures development,psychometric properties
                Nutrition & Dietetics
                feeding, measures development, psychometric properties

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