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      Equivalence of the mediation, confounding and suppression effect.

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          Abstract

          This paper describes the statistical similarities among mediation, confounding, and suppression. Each is quantified by measuring the change in the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable after adding a third variable to the analysis. Mediation and confounding are identical statistically and can be distinguished only on conceptual grounds. Methods to determine the confidence intervals for confounding and suppression effects are proposed based on methods developed for mediated effects. Although the statistical estimation of effects and standard errors is the same, there are important conceptual differences among the three types of effects.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Prev Sci
          Prevention science : the official journal of the Society for Prevention Research
          Springer Science and Business Media LLC
          1389-4986
          1389-4986
          Dec 2000
          : 1
          : 4
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe 85287-1104, USA. David.Mackinnon@asu.edu
          Article
          NIHMS173346
          10.1023/a:1026595011371
          2819361
          11523746
          7316aee5-8967-46e7-bd92-e767c24b1f95
          History

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