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      Assessment of the Knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus Among School Teachers within the Scope of the Managing Diabetes at School Program


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          Objective: Training teachers and education professionals on diabetes is crucial for full-time monitoring of diabetic children in schools. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge on diabetes in a group of school teachers in Turkey.

          Methods: Between November 2010 and November 2011, 1054 teachers from three regions of Ankara were given a questionnaire to assess their knowledge on diabetes. The mean age of the group (27% males, 73% females) was 38.8±8 years. 61.7% of the participants were class teachers, 23.3% were school counselors, and the rest were physical education teachers and administrators.

          Results: A fair percentage (47.6%) of the participants had a moderate knowledge level on diabetes and 32.4% expressed a lower level of knowledge. A large proportion (94%) gave an accurate definition of diabetes. Of the total group of 1054 teachers, 625 were aware that blood glucose level might decrease in diabetic children during follow-up. Also, 75% believed that diabetic children were eligible for physical education classes. 52.8% of these teachers had no diabetic child in their classes and teachers with a diabetic patient in their family had better knowledge of diabetes compared to their counterparts.

          Conclusions: Our study results indicate that school teachers have limited knowledge on diabetes. We believe that their knowledge levels can be improved by widespread training programs.

          Conflict of interest:None declared.

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          Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention.

          Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity through delivery of structured lesson plans by PE teachers. Process evaluation data collected via class observations and interventionist interviews assessed fidelity, dose delivered, implementor participation, dose received and barriers. Process evaluation results indicate a high level of fidelity in implementing HEALTHY PE activities and offering 225 min of PE every 10 school days. Concerning dose delivered, students were active for approximately 33 min of class, representing an average of 61% of the class time. Results also indicate that PE teachers were generally engaged in implementing the HEALTHY PE curriculum. Data on dose received showed that students were highly engaged with the PE intervention; however, student misbehavior was the most common barrier observed during classes. Other barriers included teacher disengagement, large classes, limited gym space and poor classroom management. Findings suggest that the PE intervention was generally implemented and received as intended despite several barriers.
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            School professionals' perceptions about the impact of chronic illness in the classroom.

            Children with chronic health conditions spend most of their day in the school system. The complexity of illness management and disease sequela can alter their school experience. However, little is known about what educators are concerned about if these children are in their classroom. To assess educators' perceptions of the impact of having children with different chronic health conditions in the classroom. Teachers and other school professionals in 23 elementary schools were surveyed about the impact of having a child with each of 6 chronic health conditions--AIDS, asthma, congenital heart disease, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, and leukemia--in the classroom. They responded to 13 statements about the potential academic impact on the child, impact on peers, personal risk or liability, and additional time or attention demands for the teacher. Total scores were determined for the degree of perceived impact for each issue and chronic health condition and the proportion of teachers with negative perceptions for different issues. The mean total scores (2.4 of 5) showed overall a positive perception by school professionals about children with chronic conditions in the classroom. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and epilepsy were perceived to have the most impact and asthma the least impact. The 2 educator issues (time or extra attention and personal risk or liability) were of the most concern to educators. Fifty-three percent were concerned about an emergency occurring with the child in the classroom and 27% were concerned about legal liability. Educator concerns of the risk of classroom emergencies or death were disproportionate to the clinical risk of the conditions especially for epilepsy and congenital heart disease. Overall school professionals have positive attitudes about children with chronic health conditions in the classroom, but concerns about specific diseases and issues exist. If parents provide most of the disease information, some of the educators' concerns voiced in this study may not be addressed. Health care professionals can help by providing educators with appropriate information about the risk and functional impact of childhood chronic health conditions.
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              The ALBA project: an evaluation of needs, management, fears of Italian young patients with type 1 diabetes in a school setting and an evaluation of parents' and teachers' perceptions.

              To determine how Italian parents and school personnel of 6-13-year-old children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) manage during school hours, including insulin administration, management of hypoglycemia, and glucagon use. A further aim was an investigation into the responsibilities and training of school personnel regarding diabetes. After an initial qualitative phase, semi-structured questionnaires were completed by a sample of parents and teachers. 220 parent and 52 teacher questionnaires were completed. 43.6% of parents said diabetes had negatively influenced school activities. Children either self-administer insulin, or have help from a parent, since there is very rarely a nurse present (3.6%) or a teacher who will take responsibility for the treatment (2.9%). Most parents (55.9%) stated either that the school had no refrigerator to store glucagon or that they did not know if the school was so equipped. A small percentage of teachers considered their schools to be equipped to manage an emergency (23%) and said they would use glucagon directly in an emergency (14.9%). Only 40.4% of teachers said that they had received any specific training. The study shows that people who are not directly involved have superficial knowledge of the different aspects of diabetes, even though no parents reported episodes of neglect/incorrect management. There is no legislation which clearly defines the role of the school in the care of children with T1D, and teachers are not trained to help them. Training sessions for school personnel and greater legislative clarity about the 'insulin and glucagon question' are key factors that may improve the full integration of the child with diabetes. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

                Author and article information

                J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol
                J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol
                Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
                Galenos Publishing
                December 2012
                19 December 2012
                : 4
                : 4
                : 199-203
                [1 ] Dr. Sami Ulus Obstetrics and Gynecology Pediatric Health and Disease Training and Research Hospital, Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic, Ankara, Turkey
                Author notes
                * Address for Correspondence: Dr. Sami Ulus Obstetrics and Gynecology Pediatric Health and Disease Training and Research Hospital,Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic, Ankara, Turkey Phone: +90 312 305 65 12 E-mail: asanonder@ 123456yahoo.com
                © Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology, Published by Galenos Publishing.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 30 June 2012
                : 11 August 2012
                Original Article

                diabetes mellitus,teacher education,schools
                diabetes mellitus, teacher education, schools


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