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      Temporal changes in bird communities in areas with different histories of fire disturbance in highland grasslands of Brazil

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      PLoS ONE

      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          Despite the importance and ubiquity of grasslands, the degradation and the loss of these habitats have negatively affected bird populations throughout the world. The use of fire to manage grassland areas in some regions of southern Brazil can help to maintain these areas but can also influence the bird community in different ways. We assessed temporal changes in richness, abundance, and composition of bird communities in areas with different histories of fire disturbance in highland grasslands of southern Brazil, the most extensive remnant of grassland of the Atlantic Forest domain. We censused birds during four breeding seasons (2015–2018), through point counts in areas burned only once in the last ten years (OF, n = 3), areas burned annually (AF, n = 2), and areas without fire in the last ten years (WF, n = 2). In OF the richness, abundance, and species composition changed in the year of the fire, compared to the previous year, and returned to the initial values two years later. In AF and WF we found some differences among the years, but not with an equally clear pattern. Three of the six grassland associated species assessed individually for density responded significantly to temporal habitat modification since the fire. Our results show that two years without fire were enough time for the bird community to recover after a fire, but some responses are species-specific. Therefore, fire can be used as a management tool for grasslands and may help in the conservation of birds of southern Brazil, as long as with a minimum interval between fires in an area is guaranteed.

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          Most cited references 67

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          Rarefaction and extrapolation with Hill numbers: a framework for sampling and estimation in species diversity studies

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            Coverage-based rarefaction and extrapolation: standardizing samples by completeness rather than size.

             Lou Jost,  Anne Chao (2012)
            We propose an integrated sampling, rarefaction, and extrapolation methodology to compare species richness of a set of communities based on samples of equal completeness (as measured by sample coverage) instead of equal size. Traditional rarefaction or extrapolation to equal-sized samples can misrepresent the relationships between the richnesses of the communities being compared because a sample of a given size may be sufficient to fully characterize the lower diversity community, but insufficient to characterize the richer community. Thus, the traditional method systematically biases the degree of differences between community richnesses. We derived a new analytic method for seamless coverage-based rarefaction and extrapolation. We show that this method yields less biased comparisons of richness between communities, and manages this with less total sampling effort. When this approach is integrated with an adaptive coverage-based stopping rule during sampling, samples may be compared directly without rarefaction, so no extra data is taken and none is thrown away. Even if this stopping rule is not used during data collection, coverage-based rarefaction throws away less data than traditional size-based rarefaction, and more efficiently finds the correct ranking of communities according to their true richnesses. Several hypothetical and real examples demonstrate these advantages.
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              Effects of fire protection on savanna structure in Central Brazil

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                2 December 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 12
                Affiliations
                Laboratório de Ornitologia, Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Evolução da Biodiversidade, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul—PUCRS, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
                University of Brasilia, BRAZIL
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-20-15314
                10.1371/journal.pone.0243070
                7710053
                33264348
                © 2020 Chiarani et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, Pages: 18
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003593, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico;
                Award ID: 141055/2015-4
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003593, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico;
                Award ID: 131822/2015-2
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003593, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico;
                Award ID: 457475/2012-9, 309438/2016-0, 402083/2016-4
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100014263, Neotropical Grassland Conservancy;
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100014263, Neotropical Grassland Conservancy;
                Award Recipient :
                E.C and M.B. received scholarships from Conselho Nacional do Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) - process numbers 141055/2015-4 and 131822/2015-2, respectively. CNPq also funded projects to C.S.F. (grants 457475/2012-9, 309438/2016-0, 402083/2016-4). Part of the field work was funded by Neotropical Grassland Conservancy. URL of funders website: https://www.cnpq.br/ and http://www.conservegrassland.org/. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Vertebrates
                Amniotes
                Birds
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Zoology
                Animals
                Vertebrates
                Amniotes
                Birds
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Plant Ecology
                Plant Communities
                Grasslands
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Plant Ecology
                Plant Communities
                Grasslands
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
                Plant Ecology
                Plant Communities
                Grasslands
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Terrestrial Environments
                Grasslands
                People and places
                Geographical locations
                South America
                Brazil
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Conservation Science
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Community Ecology
                Community Structure
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Community Ecology
                Community Structure
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Wildfires
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Grasses
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Habitats
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Habitats
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

                Uncategorized

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