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      The patterns of co-occurrence variation are explained by the low dependence of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae and Platypodinae) on hosts along altitude gradients


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          Separation of biotic and abiotic impacts on species diversity distribution patterns across a significant climatic gradient is a challenge in the study of diversity maintenance mechanisms. The basic task is to reconcile scale-dependent effects of abiotic and biotic processes on species distribution models. Here, we used a hierarchical modeling method to detect the host specificities of bark beetles (Scolytinae and Platypodinae) with their dependent tree communities across a steep climatic gradient, which was embedded within a relatively homogenous spatial niche.


          Species turnover of both trees and bark beetles have an opposite pattern along the climatic proxy (represented by the elevation gradients) at the regional scale, but not at local spatial scales. This pattern confirmed the hypothesis wherein emphasis was on influences of macro-climate on local biotic interactions between trees and hosted bark beetle communities, whereas local biotic relations, represented by host specificity dependence, were regionally conserved.


          At a confined spatial scale, cross-taxa comparisons of β-diversity highlighted the importance of simultaneous impacts from both extrinsic factors related to geography and environment, and intrinsic factors related to organism characteristics. The effects of tree abundance and phylogeny diversity on bark beetle diversity were, to a large extent, indirect, operating via changes in bark beetle abundance through spatial and temporal dynamics of resources distribution. Tree host dependence, which was considered and represented by host specificities, plays a minor role on the hosted beetle community in this concealed wood decomposing interacting system.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12983-022-00455-y.

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          Most cited references75

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          Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities.

          Conservationists are far from able to assist all species under threat, if only for lack of funding. This places a premium on priorities: how can we support the most species at the least cost? One way is to identify 'biodiversity hotspots' where exceptional concentrations of endemic species are undergoing exceptional loss of habitat. As many as 44% of all species of vascular plants and 35% of all species in four vertebrate groups are confined to 25 hotspots comprising only 1.4% of the land surface of the Earth. This opens the way for a 'silver bullet' strategy on the part of conservation planners, focusing on these hotspots in proportion to their share of the world's species at risk.
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            Picante: R tools for integrating phylogenies and ecology.

            Picante is a software package that provides a comprehensive set of tools for analyzing the phylogenetic and trait diversity of ecological communities. The package calculates phylogenetic diversity metrics, performs trait comparative analyses, manipulates phenotypic and phylogenetic data, and performs tests for phylogenetic signal in trait distributions, community structure and species interactions. Picante is a package for the R statistical language and environment written in R and C, released under a GPL v2 open-source license, and freely available on the web (http://picante.r-forge.r-project.org) and from CRAN (http://cran.r-project.org).
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              Concluding Remarks


                Author and article information

                Front Zool
                Front Zool
                Frontiers in Zoology
                BioMed Central (London )
                4 March 2022
                4 March 2022
                : 19
                : 10
                [1 ]GRID grid.443487.8, ISNI 0000 0004 1799 4208, College of Biological and Agricultural Sciences, , Honghe University, ; Mengzi, 661199 Yunnan China
                [2 ]GRID grid.9227.e, ISNI 0000000119573309, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, , Chinese Academy of Sciences, ; Mengla, 666303 Yunnan China
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                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                : 24 August 2021
                : 18 February 2022
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100011002, National Natural Science Foundation of China-Yunnan Joint Fund;
                Award ID: 31200322
                Award ID: 31760171
                Award Recipient :
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                © The Author(s) 2022

                Animal science & Zoology
                bark beetles,β-diversity,spatial scales,elevation gradient,host dependence,plant–insect interactions


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