Hamza Naciri Bennani a , Juste Yérémandé Bonzi a , Johan Noble a , Florian Terrec a , Lionel Motte a , Farida Imerzoukene a , Mathilde Bugnazet a , Diane Giovannini b , Bénédicte Janbon a , Paolo Malvezzi a , Lionel Rostaing a , * , Thomas Jouve a
07 January 2020
Introduction: Primary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) frequently reoccurs on kidney transplants and may lead to premature allograft loss. There are no guidelines for treating FSGS recurrence on allografts; treatment is based on apheresis (plasma exchange plasmapheresis [PP], semi-specific immunoadsorption [IA] with reusable columns) plus rituximab. Objective: We aimed to assess the efficacy of IA to treat recurrent FSGS. Methods: We report on 7 patients with recurrent FSGS on kidney allograft (proteinuria ≥3 g/g of urinary creatinine or ≥3 g/day); they all received IA. Our primary objective was to reduce proteinuria by >50%. Patients’ mean age was 45 ± 10 years. Postoperative immunosuppression relied on steroids, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, with an induction therapy of basiliximab or antithymocyte globulins. Prophylaxis to prevent FSGS recurrence was either rituximab alone ( n = 3), rituximab plus either PP or IA ( n = 3), or no treatment ( n = 1). Mean follow-up was 20 ± 13 months. There was a median of 72 (14–101) IA sessions per patient, that is, a mean of 14 ± 1 sessions per IA column. Results: At 12 months after starting IA, all patients had partial ( n = 6) or complete ( n = 1) remission, and allograft survival was 100%. The mean reduction in proteinuria within an IA session was 45 ± 15%. At last follow-up, 2 patients are in remission without IA, 3 patients are in partial remission that is IA dependent, and 2 patients lost their allograft due to FSGS recurrence. The most frequent adverse event was cytomegalovirus reactivation ( n = 13), which subsided after valganciclovir therapy. Conclusions: We show that recurrence of FSGS can be controlled long term with IA plus rituximab. However, some patients remained dependent on IA.