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      Deformation Time Series and Driving-Force Analysis of Glaciers in the Eastern Tienshan Mountains Using the SBAS InSAR Method

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          Glacier melting is one of the important causes of glacier morphology change and can provide basic parameters for calculating glacier volume change and glacier mass balance, which, in turn, is important for evaluating water resources. However, it is difficult to obtain large-scale time series of glacier changes due to the cloudy and foggy conditions which are typical of mountain areas. Gravity-measuring satellites and laser altimetry satellites can monitor changes in glacier volume over a wide area, while synthetic-aperture radar satellites can monitoring glacier morphology with a high spatial and temporal resolution. In this article, an interferometric method using a short temporal baseline and a short spatial baseline, called the Small Baseline Subsets (SBAS) Interferometric Synthetic-Aperture Radar (InSAR) method, was used to study the average rate of glacier deformation on Karlik Mountain, in the Eastern Tienshan Mountains, China, by using 19 Sentinel-1A images from November 2017 to December 2018. Thus, a time series analysis of glacier deformation was conducted. It was found that the average glacier deformation in the study region was −11.77 ± 9.73 mm/year, with the observation sites generally moving away from the satellite along the Line of Sight (LOS). Taking the ridge line as the dividing line, it was found that the melting rate of southern slopes was higher than that of northern slopes. According to the perpendicular of the mountain direction, the mountain was divided into an area in the northwest with large glaciers (Area I) and an area in the southeast with small glaciers (Area II). It was found that the melting rate in the southeast area was larger than that in the northwest area. Additionally, through the analysis of temperature and precipitation data, it was found that precipitation played a leading role in glacier deformation in the study region. Through the statistical analysis of the deformation, it was concluded that the absolute value of deformation is large at elevations below 4200 m while the absolute value of the deformation is very small at elevations above 4500 m; the direction of deformation is always away from the satellite along the LOS and the absolute value of glacier deformation decreases with increasing elevation.

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          A new method for measuring deformation on volcanoes and other natural terrains using InSAR persistent scatterers

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              Climate change impacts on glaciers and runoff in Tien Shan (Central Asia)


                Author and article information

                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                20 April 2020
                April 2020
                : 17
                : 8
                [1 ]School of Surveying and Land Information Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454003, China; dwb@ (W.D.); weiqian1833919@ (W.J.); wst@ (S.W.)
                [2 ]Key Laboratory of Sediment, Ministry of Water Resources, Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Yellow River Conservancy Commission, Zhengzhou 450003, China
                [3 ]Department of Hydraulic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Hydro-Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: xlj2112003@
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


                Public health

                sbas insar, deformation of los, time series analysis, glacier change


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