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      The Transcriptional Landscape of the Yeast Genome Defined by RNA Sequencing

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      Science
      American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

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          Abstract

          The identification of untranslated regions, introns, and coding regions within an organism remains challenging. We developed a quantitative sequencing-based method called RNA-Seq for mapping transcribed regions, in which complementary DNA fragments are subjected to high-throughput sequencing and mapped to the genome. We applied RNA-Seq to generate a high-resolution transcriptome map of the yeast genome and demonstrated that most (74.5%) of the nonrepetitive sequence of the yeast genome is transcribed. We confirmed many known and predicted introns and demonstrated that others are not actively used. Alternative initiation codons and upstream open reading frames also were identified for many yeast genes. We also found unexpected 3'-end heterogeneity and the presence of many overlapping genes. These results indicate that the yeast transcriptome is more complex than previously appreciated.

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          Most cited references10

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          Sequencing and comparison of yeast species to identify genes and regulatory elements.

          Identifying the functional elements encoded in a genome is one of the principal challenges in modern biology. Comparative genomics should offer a powerful, general approach. Here, we present a comparative analysis of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on high-quality draft sequences of three related species (S. paradoxus, S. mikatae and S. bayanus). We first aligned the genomes and characterized their evolution, defining the regions and mechanisms of change. We then developed methods for direct identification of genes and regulatory motifs. The gene analysis yielded a major revision to the yeast gene catalogue, affecting approximately 15% of all genes and reducing the total count by about 500 genes. The motif analysis automatically identified 72 genome-wide elements, including most known regulatory motifs and numerous new motifs. We inferred a putative function for most of these motifs, and provided insights into their combinatorial interactions. The results have implications for genome analysis of diverse organisms, including the human.
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            Global identification of human transcribed sequences with genome tiling arrays.

            Elucidating the transcribed regions of the genome constitutes a fundamental aspect of human biology, yet this remains an outstanding problem. To comprehensively identify coding sequences, we constructed a series of high-density oligonucleotide tiling arrays representing sense and antisense strands of the entire nonrepetitive sequence of the human genome. Transcribed sequences were located across the genome via hybridization to complementary DNA samples, reverse-transcribed from polyadenylated RNA obtained from human liver tissue. In addition to identifying many known and predicted genes, we found 10,595 transcribed sequences not detected by other methods. A large fraction of these are located in intergenic regions distal from previously annotated genes and exhibit significant homology to other mammalian proteins.
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              Finding functional features in Saccharomyces genomes by phylogenetic footprinting.

              The sifting and winnowing of DNA sequence that occur during evolution cause nonfunctional sequences to diverge, leaving phylogenetic footprints of functional sequence elements in comparisons of genome sequences. We searched for such footprints among the genome sequences of six Saccharomyces species and identified potentially functional sequences. Comparison of these sequences allowed us to revise the catalog of yeast genes and identify sequence motifs that may be targets of transcriptional regulatory proteins. Some of these conserved sequence motifs reside upstream of genes with similar functional annotations or similar expression patterns or those bound by the same transcription factor and are thus good candidates for functional regulatory sequences.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science
                Science
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                0036-8075
                1095-9203
                June 06 2008
                June 06 2008
                : 320
                : 5881
                : 1344-1349
                Article
                10.1126/science.1158441
                2951732
                18451266
                73363cd3-03ce-4296-9cd5-31b934681b81
                © 2008

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