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      Biofertilizers function as key player in sustainable agriculture by improving soil fertility, plant tolerance and crop productivity

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          Abstract

          Current soil management strategies are mainly dependent on inorganic chemical-based fertilizers, which caused a serious threat to human health and environment. The exploitation of beneficial microbes as a biofertilizer has become paramount importance in agriculture sector for their potential role in food safety and sustainable crop production. The eco-friendly approaches inspire a wide range of application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), endo- and ectomycorrhizal fungi, cyanobacteria and many other useful microscopic organisms led to improved nutrient uptake, plant growth and plant tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress. The present review highlighted biofertilizers mediated crops functional traits such as plant growth and productivity, nutrient profile, plant defense and protection with special emphasis to its function to trigger various growth- and defense-related genes in signaling network of cellular pathways to cause cellular response and thereby crop improvement. The knowledge gained from the literature appraised herein will help us to understand the physiological bases of biofertlizers towards sustainable agriculture in reducing problems associated with the use of chemicals fertilizers.

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          Most cited references70

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          Rhizosphere bacteria help plants tolerate abiotic stress.

          Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are associated with plant roots and augment plant productivity and immunity; however, recent work by several groups shows that PGPR also elicit so-called 'induced systemic tolerance' to salt and drought. As we discuss here, PGPR might also increase nutrient uptake from soils, thus reducing the need for fertilizers and preventing the accumulation of nitrates and phosphates in agricultural soils. A reduction in fertilizer use would lessen the effects of water contamination from fertilizer run-off and lead to savings for farmers.
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            Fungal lipochitooligosaccharide symbiotic signals in arbuscular mycorrhiza.

            Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a root endosymbiosis between plants and glomeromycete fungi. It is the most widespread terrestrial plant symbiosis, improving plant uptake of water and mineral nutrients. Yet, despite its crucial role in land ecosystems, molecular mechanisms leading to its formation are just beginning to be unravelled. Recent evidence suggests that AM fungi produce diffusible symbiotic signals. Here we show that Glomus intraradices secretes symbiotic signals that are a mixture of sulphated and non-sulphated simple lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs), which stimulate formation of AM in plant species of diverse families (Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Umbelliferae). In the legume Medicago truncatula these signals stimulate root growth and branching by the symbiotic DMI signalling pathway. These findings provide a better understanding of the evolution of signalling mechanisms involved in plant root endosymbioses and will greatly facilitate their molecular dissection. They also open the way to using these natural and very active molecules in agriculture.
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              Roles of arbuscular mycorrhizas in plant phosphorus nutrition: interactions between pathways of phosphorus uptake in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots have important implications for understanding and manipulating plant phosphorus acquisition.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Microb Cell Fact
                Microb. Cell Fact
                Microbial Cell Factories
                BioMed Central
                1475-2859
                2014
                8 May 2014
                : 13
                : 66
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Plant Molecular Biology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India
                Article
                1475-2859-13-66
                10.1186/1475-2859-13-66
                4022417
                24387764
                73448ccc-8e8c-4913-82f1-b45a79d1559a
                Copyright © 2014 Bhardwaj et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 25 February 2014
                : 30 April 2014
                Categories
                Review

                Biotechnology
                biofertilizer,crop improvement,environmental stress,mode of action of biofertilizers,sustainable agriculture

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