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      Utilizing Bacteria-Derived Components for Cancer Immunotherapy


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          Bacteria-related cancer immunotherapy, because of its mechanisms and useful applications in the induction of anti-tumor immunity, has gained substantial attention in recent decades. Bacteria can enable targeting of tumors, and specifically can colonize the core tumor area. Because they contain many pathogen-associated molecular patterns—which efficiently stimulate immune cells, even within microenvironments that suppress anti-tumor immunity—bacteria boost immunological recognition leading to the destruction of malignant cells. This Editorial highlights various bacteria with immunotherapeutic effects and their by-products used as immunotherapeutics.

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          Most cited references70

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          Regulatory T cells in cancer immunotherapy

          FOXP3-expressing regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress aberrant immune response against self-antigens, also suppress anti-tumor immune response. Infiltration of a large number of Treg cells into tumor tissues is often associated with poor prognosis. There is accumulating evidence that the removal of Treg cells is able to evoke and enhance anti-tumor immune response. However, systemic depletion of Treg cells may concurrently elicit deleterious autoimmunity. One strategy for evoking effective tumor immunity without autoimmunity is to specifically target terminally differentiated effector Treg cells rather than all FOXP3+ T cells, because effector Treg cells are the predominant cell type in tumor tissues. Various cell surface molecules, including chemokine receptors such as CCR4, that are specifically expressed by effector Treg cells can be the candidates for depleting effector Treg cells by specific cell-depleting monoclonal antibodies. In addition, other immunological characteristics of effector Treg cells, such as their high expression of CTLA-4, active proliferation, and apoptosis-prone tendency, can be exploited to control specifically their functions. For example, anti-CTLA-4 antibody may kill effector Treg cells or attenuate their suppressive activity. It is hoped that combination of Treg-cell targeting (e.g., by reducing Treg cells or attenuating their suppressive activity in tumor tissues) with the activation of tumor-specific effector T cells (e.g., by cancer vaccine or immune checkpoint blockade) will make the current cancer immunotherapy more effective.
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            Outer-membrane vesicles from Gram-negative bacteria: biogenesis and functions.

            Outer-membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spherical buds of the outer membrane filled with periplasmic content and are commonly produced by Gram-negative bacteria. The production of OMVs allows bacteria to interact with their environment, and OMVs have been found to mediate diverse functions, including promoting pathogenesis, enabling bacterial survival during stress conditions and regulating microbial interactions within bacterial communities. Additionally, because of this functional versatility, researchers have begun to explore OMVs as a platform for bioengineering applications. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in the study of OMVs, focusing on new insights into the mechanisms of biogenesis and the functions of these vesicles.
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              Regulatory T (Treg) cells in cancer: Can Treg cells be a new therapeutic target?

              Abstract Regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress abnormal/excessive immune responses to self‐ and nonself‐antigens to maintain immune homeostasis. In tumor immunity, Treg cells are involved in tumor development and progression by inhibiting antitumor immunity. There are several Treg cell immune suppressive mechanisms: inhibition of costimulatory signals by CD80 and CD86 expressed by dendritic cells through cytotoxic T‐lymphocyte antigen‐4, interleukin (IL)‐2 consumption by high‐affinity IL‐2 receptors with high CD25 (IL‐2 receptor α‐chain) expression, secretion of inhibitory cytokines, metabolic modulation of tryptophan and adenosine, and direct killing of effector T cells. Infiltration of Treg cells into the tumor microenvironment (TME) occurs in multiple murine and human tumors. Regulatory T cells are chemoattracted to the TME by chemokine gradients such as CCR4‐CCL17/22, CCR8‐CCL1, CCR10‐CCL28, and CXCR3‐CCL9/10/11. Regulatory T cells are then activated and inhibit antitumor immune responses. A high infiltration by Treg cells is associated with poor survival in various types of cancer. Therefore, strategies to deplete Treg cells and control of Treg cell functions to increase antitumor immune responses are urgently required in the cancer immunotherapy field. Various molecules that are highly expressed by Treg cells, such as immune checkpoint molecules, chemokine receptors, and metabolites, have been targeted by Abs or small molecules, but additional strategies are needed to fine‐tune and optimize for augmenting antitumor effects restricted in the TME while avoiding systemic autoimmunity. Here, we provide a brief synopsis of these cells in cancer and how they can be controlled to achieve therapeutic outcomes.

                Author and article information

                BIO Integration
                Compuscript (Ireland )
                December 2022
                04 August 2022
                : 3
                : 4
                : 180-187
                [1] 1College of Biology and the Environment, Co-Innovation Centre for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210-037, China
                [2] 2Cell Factory Research Centre, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                *Correspondence to: Long Jin, Tel: +86-25-8542-7210, Fax: +86-25-8542-7210, E-mail: isacckim@ 123456alumni.kaist.ac.kr

                aThese authors contributed equally to this work.

                Copyright © 2022 The Authors

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). See https://bio-integration.org/copyright-and-permissions/

                Self URI (journal-page): https://bio-integration.org/
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