Blog
About

48
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Epidemiology and control of human schistosomiasis in Tanzania

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          In Tanzania, the first cases of schistosomiasis were reported in the early 19th century. Since then, various studies have reported prevalences of up to 100% in some areas. However, for many years, there have been no sustainable control programmes and systematic data from observational and control studies are very limited in the public domain. To cover that gap, the present article reviews the epidemiology, malacology, morbidity, and the milestones the country has made in efforts to control schistosomiasis and discusses future control approaches. The available evidence indicates that, both urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis are still highly endemic in Tanzania and cause significant morbidity.Mass drug administration using praziquantel, currently used as a key intervention measure, has not been successful in decreasing prevalence of infection. There is therefore an urgent need to revise the current approach for the successful control of the disease. Clearly, these need to be integrated control measures.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 118

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Schistosomiasis and water resources development: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimates of people at risk.

          An estimated 779 million people are at risk of schistosomiasis, of whom 106 million (13.6%) live in irrigation schemes or in close proximity to large dam reservoirs. We identified 58 studies that examined the relation between water resources development projects and schistosomiasis, primarily in African settings. We present a systematic literature review and meta-analysis with the following objectives: (1) to update at-risk populations of schistosomiasis and number of people infected in endemic countries, and (2) to quantify the risk of water resources development and management on schistosomiasis. Using 35 datasets from 24 African studies, our meta-analysis showed pooled random risk ratios of 2.4 and 2.6 for urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis, respectively, among people living adjacent to dam reservoirs. The risk ratio estimate for studies evaluating the effect of irrigation on urinary schistosomiasis was in the range 0.02-7.3 (summary estimate 1.1) and that on intestinal schistosomiasis in the range 0.49-23.0 (summary estimate 4.7). Geographic stratification showed important spatial differences, idiosyncratic to the type of water resources development. We conclude that the development and management of water resources is an important risk factor for schistosomiasis, and hence strategies to mitigate negative effects should become integral parts in the planning, implementation, and operation of future water projects.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            Neglected Tropical Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa: Review of Their Prevalence, Distribution, and Disease Burden

            The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are the most common conditions affecting the poorest 500 million people living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and together produce a burden of disease that may be equivalent to up to one-half of SSA's malaria disease burden and more than double that caused by tuberculosis. Approximately 85% of the NTD disease burden results from helminth infections. Hookworm infection occurs in almost half of SSA's poorest people, including 40–50 million school-aged children and 7 million pregnant women in whom it is a leading cause of anemia. Schistosomiasis is the second most prevalent NTD after hookworm (192 million cases), accounting for 93% of the world's number of cases and possibly associated with increased horizontal transmission of HIV/AIDS. Lymphatic filariasis (46–51 million cases) and onchocerciasis (37 million cases) are also widespread in SSA, each disease representing a significant cause of disability and reduction in the region's agricultural productivity. There is a dearth of information on Africa's non-helminth NTDs. The protozoan infections, human African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis, affect almost 100,000 people, primarily in areas of conflict in SSA where they cause high mortality, and where trachoma is the most prevalent bacterial NTD (30 million cases). However, there are little or no data on some very important protozoan infections, e.g., amebiasis and toxoplasmosis; bacterial infections, e.g., typhoid fever and non-typhoidal salmonellosis, the tick-borne bacterial zoonoses, and non-tuberculosis mycobaterial infections; and arboviral infections. Thus, the overall burden of Africa's NTDs may be severely underestimated. A full assessment is an important step for disease control priorities, particularly in Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the greatest number of NTDs may occur.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The global status of schistosomiasis and its control.

              Schistosomiasis is being successfully controlled in many countries but remains a major public health problem, with an estimated 200 million people infected, mostly in Africa. Few countries in this region have undertaken successful and sustainable control programmes. The construction of water schemes to meet the power and agricultural requirements for development have lead to increasing transmission, especially of Schistosoma mansoni. Increasing population and movement have contributed to increased transmission and introduction of schistosomiasis to new areas. Most endemic countries are among the least developed whose health systems face difficulties to provide basic care at the primary health level. Constraints to control include, the lack of political commitment and infrastructure for public health interventions. Another constraint is that available anti-schistosomal drugs are expensive and the cost of individual treatment is a high proportion of the per capita drug budgets. There is need for increased support for schistosomiasis control in the most severely affected countries.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central
                1756-3305
                2012
                28 November 2012
                : 5
                : 274
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medical Parasitology and Entomology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 1464, Mwanza, Tanzania
                [2 ]Department of Environmental Health and Communicable Disease Control, School of Public Health|, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda
                [3 ]National Institute for Medical Research, Mwanza Research Centre, P.O. Box 1462, Mwanza, Tanzania
                [4 ]Department of Pathology, Parasitology Section, Cambridge University, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1QP, UK
                [5 ]Department of Community Health, School of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil
                Article
                1756-3305-5-274
                10.1186/1756-3305-5-274
                3549774
                23192005
                Copyright ©2012 Mazigo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review

                Parasitology

                control, epidemiology, schistosomiasis, morbidity, s. mansoni, tanzania

                Comments

                Comment on this article