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      Plant Phenolics: Extraction, Analysis and Their Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties

      1 , 2 , 3 , *
      plant phenolics, extraction, analysis, antioxidant, anticancer

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          Phenolics are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. Plant polyphenols have drawn increasing attention due to their potent antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases such as cancer. In the last few years, the identification and development of phenolic compounds or extracts from different plants has become a major area of health- and medical-related research. This review provides an updated and comprehensive overview on phenolic extraction, purification, analysis and quantification as well as their antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the anticancer effects of phenolics in-vitro and in- vivo animal models are viewed, including recent human intervention studies. Finally, possible mechanisms of action involving antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity as well as interference with cellular functions are discussed.

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          Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging.

          Metabolism, like other aspects of life, involves tradeoffs. Oxidant by-products of normal metabolism cause extensive damage to DNA, protein, and lipid. We argue that this damage (the same as that produced by radiation) is a major contributor to aging and to degenerative diseases of aging such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune-system decline, brain dysfunction, and cataracts. Antioxidant defenses against this damage include ascorbate, tocopherol, and carotenoids. Dietary fruits and vegetables are the principal source of ascorbate and carotenoids and are one source of tocopherol. Low dietary intake of fruits and vegetables doubles the risk of most types of cancer as compared to high intake and also markedly increases the risk of heart disease and cataracts. Since only 9% of Americans eat the recommended five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, the opportunity for improving health by improving diet is great.
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            Tea catechins and polyphenols: health effects, metabolism, and antioxidant functions.

            Increasing interest in the health benefits of tea has led to the inclusion of tea extracts in dietary supplements and functional foods. However, epidemiologic evidence regarding the effects of tea consumption on cancer and cardiovascular disease risk is conflicting. While tea contains a number of bioactive chemicals, it is particularly rich in catechins, of which epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Catechins and their derivatives are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects ascribed to tea. Tea catechins and polyphenols are effective scavengers of reactive oxygen species in vitro and may also function indirectly as antioxidants through their effects on transcription factors and enzyme activities. The fact that catechins are rapidly and extensively metabolized emphasizes the importance of demonstrating their antioxidant activity in vivo. In humans, modest transient increases in plasma antioxidant capacity have been demonstrated following the consumption of tea and green tea catechins. The effects of tea and green tea catechins on biomarkers of oxidative stress, especially oxidative DNA damage, appear very promising in animal models, but data on biomarkers of in vivo oxidative stress in humans are limited. Larger human studies examining the effects of tea and tea catechin intake on biomarkers of oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA are needed.
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              Analysis of antioxidant activities of common vegetables employing oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays: a comparative study.

              A total of 927 freeze-dried vegetable samples, including 111 white cabbages, 59 carrots, 51 snap beans, 57 cauliflower, 33 white onions, 48 purple onions, 130 broccoli, 169 tomatoes, 25 beets, 88 peas, 88 spinach, 18 red peppers, and 50 green peppers, were analyzed using the oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) methods. The data show that the ORAC and FRAP values of vegetable are not only dependent on species, but also highly dependent on geographical origin and harvest time. The two antioxidant assay methods, ORAC and FRAP, also give different antioxidant activity trends. The discrepancy is extensively discussed based on the chemistry principles upon which these methods are built, and it is concluded that the ORAC method is chemically more relevant to chain-breaking antioxidants activity, while the FRAP has some drawbacks such as interference, reaction kinetics, and quantitation methods. On the basis of the ORAC results, green pepper, spinach, purple onion, broccoli, beet, and cauliflower are the leading sources of antioxidant activities against the peroxyl radicals.

                Author and article information

                21 October 2010
                October 2010
                : 15
                : 10
                : 7313-7352
                [1 ]Four Tigers LLC, 1501 Bull Lea Road, Suite 105, Lexington, Kentucky 40511 USA; Email: jdai2@ 123456uky.edu (J.D.)
                [2 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA
                [3 ]Division of Molecular Pharmaceutics, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
                Author notes
                [* ] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; Email: mumper@ 123456email.unc.edu ; Tel.: +1-919-966-1271; Fax: +1-919-966-6919.
                © 2010 by the authors;

                licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                : 10 September 2010
                : 15 October 2010
                : 19 October 2010

                plant phenolics,extraction,analysis,antioxidant,anticancer
                plant phenolics, extraction, analysis, antioxidant, anticancer


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