Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

Plant Phenolics: Extraction, Analysis and Their Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties

1 , 2 , 3 , *

Molecules

MDPI

plant phenolics, extraction, analysis, antioxidant, anticancer

Read this article at

Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      Phenolics are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. Plant polyphenols have drawn increasing attention due to their potent antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases such as cancer. In the last few years, the identification and development of phenolic compounds or extracts from different plants has become a major area of health- and medical-related research. This review provides an updated and comprehensive overview on phenolic extraction, purification, analysis and quantification as well as their antioxidant properties. Furthermore, the anticancer effects of phenolics in-vitro and in- vivo animal models are viewed, including recent human intervention studies. Finally, possible mechanisms of action involving antioxidant and pro-oxidant activity as well as interference with cellular functions are discussed.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 259

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay

        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability.

        Polyphenols are abundant micronutrients in our diet, and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases is emerging. The health effects of polyphenols depend on the amount consumed and on their bioavailability. In this article, the nature and contents of the various polyphenols present in food sources and the influence of agricultural practices and industrial processes are reviewed. Estimates of dietary intakes are given for each class of polyphenols. The bioavailability of polyphenols is also reviewed, with particular focus on intestinal absorption and the influence of chemical structure (eg, glycosylation, esterification, and polymerization), food matrix, and excretion back into the intestinal lumen. Information on the role of microflora in the catabolism of polyphenols and the production of some active metabolites is presented. Mechanisms of intestinal and hepatic conjugation (methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation), plasma transport, and elimination in bile and urine are also described. Pharmacokinetic data for the various polyphenols are compared. Studies on the identification of circulating metabolites, cellular uptake, intracellular metabolism with possible deconjugation, biological properties of the conjugated metabolites, and specific accumulation in some target tissues are discussed. Finally, bioavailability appears to differ greatly between the various polyphenols, and the most abundant polyphenols in our diet are not necessarily those that have the best bioavailability profile. A thorough knowledge of the bioavailability of the hundreds of dietary polyphenols will help us to identify those that are most likely to exert protective health effects.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Apoptosis in the pathogenesis and treatment of disease.

          In multicellular organisms, homeostasis is maintained through a balance between cell proliferation and cell death. Although much is known about the control of cell proliferation, less is known about the control of cell death. Physiologic cell death occurs primarily through an evolutionarily conserved form of cell suicide termed apoptosis. The decision of a cell to undergo apoptosis can be influenced by a wide variety of regulatory stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that alterations in cell survival contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases, including cancer, viral infections, autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Treatments designed to specifically alter the apoptotic threshold may have the potential to change the natural progression of some of these diseases.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Four Tigers LLC, 1501 Bull Lea Road, Suite 105, Lexington, Kentucky 40511 USA; Email: jdai2@ 123456uky.edu (J.D.)
            [2 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA
            [3 ]Division of Molecular Pharmaceutics, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
            Author notes
            [* ] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; Email: mumper@ 123456email.unc.edu ; Tel.: +1-919-966-1271; Fax: +1-919-966-6919.
            Journal
            Molecules
            Molecules
            molecules
            Molecules
            MDPI
            1420-3049
            21 October 2010
            October 2010
            : 15
            : 10
            : 7313-7352
            20966876 6259146 10.3390/molecules15107313 molecules-15-07313
            © 2010 by the authors;

            licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

            Categories
            Review

            Comments

            Comment on this article