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      Effortless Self-Control: A Novel Perspective on Response Conflict Strategies in Trait Self-Control : Effortless Self-Control

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      Social and Personality Psychology Compass

      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Most cited references 33

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          Self-Regulation Failure: An Overview

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            Taking stock of self-control: a meta-analysis of how trait self-control relates to a wide range of behaviors.

            Given assertions of the theoretical, empirical, and practical importance of self-control, this meta-analytic study sought to review evidence concerning the relationship between dispositional self-control and behavior. The authors provide a brief overview over prominent theories of self-control, identifying implicit assumptions surrounding the effects of self-control that warrant empirical testing. They report the results of a meta-analysis of 102 studies (total N = 32,648) investigating the behavioral effects of self-control using the Self-Control Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and the Low Self-Control Scale. A small to medium positive effect of self-control on behavior was found for the three scales. Only the Self-Control Scale allowed for a fine-grained analysis of conceptual moderators of the self-control behavior relation. Specifically, self-control (measured by the Self-Control Scale) related similarly to the performance of desired behaviors and the inhibition of undesired behaviors, but its effects varied dramatically across life domains (e.g., achievement, adjustment). In addition, the associations between self-control and behavior were significantly stronger for automatic (as compared to controlled) behavior and for imagined (as compared to actual) behavior.
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              Impulse and Self-Control From a Dual-Systems Perspective.

              Though human beings embody a unique ability for planned behavior, they also often act impulsively. This insight may be important for the study of self-control situations in which people are torn between their long-term goals to restrain behavior and their immediate impulses that promise hedonic fulfillment. In the present article, we outline a dual-systems perspective of impulse and self-control and suggest a framework for the prediction of self-control outcomes. This framework combines three elements that, considered jointly, may enable a more precise prediction of self-control outcomes than they do when studied in isolation: impulsive precursors of behavior, reflective precursors, and situational or dispositional boundary conditions. The theoretical and practical utility of such an approach is demonstrated by drawing on recent evidence from several domains of self-control such as eating, drinking, and sexual behavior.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Social and Personality Psychology Compass
                Social and Personality Psychology Compass
                Wiley-Blackwell
                17519004
                February 2015
                February 05 2015
                : 9
                : 2
                : 88-99
                Article
                10.1111/spc3.12160
                © 2015
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/spc3.12160

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