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      Lasofoxifene for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis

      Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management

      Dove Medical Press

      osteoporosis, SERM, fracture, efficacy, safety, BMD, CP-336,156

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          Abstract

          Lasofoxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (estrogen agonist/antagonist) that has completed phase III trials to evaluate safety and efficacy for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and for the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. In postmenopausal women with low or normal bone mineral density (BMD), lasofoxifene increased BMD at the lumbar spine and hip and reduced bone turnover markers compared with placebo. In women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, lasofoxifene increased BMD, reduced bone turnover markers, reduced the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, and decreased the risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. In postmenopausal women with low bone mass, lasofoxifene improved the signs and symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy. Clinical trials show that lasofoxifene is generally well tolerated with mild to moderate adverse events that commonly resolve even with drug continuation. Lasofoxifene has been associated with an increase in the incidence of venous thromboembolic events, hot flushes, muscle spasm, and vaginal bleeding. It is approved for the treatment of postmenopausal women at increased risk for fracture in some countries and is in the regulatory review process in others.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Effect of parathyroid hormone (1-34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

          Once-daily injections of parathyroid hormone or its amino-terminal fragments increase bone formation and bone mass without causing hypercalcemia, but their effects on fractures are unknown. We randomly assigned 1637 postmenopausal women with prior vertebral fractures to receive 20 or 40 microg of parathyroid hormone (1-34) or placebo, administered subcutaneously by the women daily. We obtained vertebral radiographs at base line and at the end of the study (median duration of observation, 21 months) and performed serial measurements of bone mass by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. New vertebral fractures occurred in 14 percent of the women in the placebo group and in 5 percent and 4 percent, respectively, of the women in the 20-microg and 40-microg parathyroid hormone groups; the respective relative risks of fracture in the 20-microg and 40-microg groups, as compared with the placebo group, were 0.35 and 0.31 (95 percent confidence intervals, 0.22 to 0.55 and 0.19 to 0.50). New nonvertebral fragility fractures occurred in 6 percent of the women in the placebo group and in 3 percent of those in each parathyroid hormone group (relative risk, 0.47 and 0.46, respectively [95 percent confidence intervals, 0.25 to 0.88 and 0.25 to 0.861). As compared with placebo, the 20-microg and 40-microg doses of parathyroid hormone increased bone mineral density by 9 and 13 more percentage points in the lumbar spine and by 3 and 6 more percentage points in the femoral neck; the 40-microg dose decreased bone mineral density at the shaft of the radius by 2 more percentage points. Both doses increased total-body bone mineral by 2 to 4 more percentage points than did placebo. Parathyroid hormone had only minor side effects (occasional nausea and headache). Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with parathyroid hormone (1-34) decreases the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures; increases vertebral, femoral, and total-body bone mineral density; and is well tolerated. The 40-microg dose increased bone mineral density more than the 20-microg dose but had similar effects on the risk of fracture and was more likely to have side effects.
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            Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy.

              (2001)
            To clarify the factors associated with prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis, and to present the most recent information available in these areas. From March 27-29, 2000, a nonfederal, nonadvocate, 13-member panel was convened, representing the fields of internal medicine, family and community medicine, endocrinology, epidemiology, orthopedic surgery, gerontology, rheumatology, obstetrics and gynecology, preventive medicine, and cell biology. Thirty-two experts from these fields presented data to the panel and an audience of 699. Primary sponsors were the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases and the National Institutes of Health Office of Medical Applications of Research. MEDLINE was searched for January 1995 through December 1999, and a bibliography of 2449 references provided to the panel. Experts prepared abstracts for presentations with relevant literature citations. Scientific evidence was given precedence over anecdotal experience. The panel, answering predefined questions, developed conclusions based on evidence presented in open forum and the literature. The panel composed a draft statement, which was read and circulated to the experts and the audience for public discussion. The panel resolved conflicts and released a revised statement at the end of the conference. The draft statement was posted on the Web on March 30, 2000, and updated with the panel's final revisions within a few weeks. Though prevalent in white postmenopausal women, osteoporosis occurs in all populations and at all ages and has significant physical, psychosocial, and financial consequences. Risks for osteoporosis (reflected by low bone mineral density [BMD]) and for fracture overlap but are not identical. More attention should be paid to skeletal health in persons with conditions associated with secondary osteoporosis. Clinical risk factors have an important but poorly validated role in determining who should have BMD measurement, in assessing fracture risk, and in determining who should be treated. Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake is crucial to develop optimal peak bone mass and to preserve bone mass throughout life. Supplementation with these 2 nutrients may be necessary in persons not achieving recommended dietary intake. Gonadal steroids are important determinants of peak and lifetime bone mass in men, women, and children. Regular exercise, especially resistance and high-impact activities, contributes to development of high peak bone mass and may reduce risk of falls in older persons. Assessment of bone mass, identification of fracture risk, and determination of who should be treated are the optimal goals when evaluating patients for osteoporosis. Fracture prevention is the primary treatment goal for patients with osteoporosis. Several treatments have been shown to reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures, including those that enhance bone mass and reduce the risk or consequences of falls. Adults with vertebral, rib, hip, or distal forearm fractures should be evaluated for osteoporosis and given appropriate therapy.
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              Effects of tamoxifen vs raloxifene on the risk of developing invasive breast cancer and other disease outcomes: the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 trial.

              Tamoxifen is approved for the reduction of breast cancer risk, and raloxifene has demonstrated a reduced risk of breast cancer in trials of older women with osteoporosis. To compare the relative effects and safety of raloxifene and tamoxifen on the risk of developing invasive breast cancer and other disease outcomes. The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene trial, a prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted beginning July 1, 1999, in nearly 200 clinical centers throughout North America, with final analysis initiated after at least 327 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed. Patients were 19,747 postmenopausal women of mean age 58.5 years with increased 5-year breast cancer risk (mean risk, 4.03% [SD, 2.17%]). Data reported are based on a cutoff date of December 31, 2005. Oral tamoxifen (20 mg/d) or raloxifene (60 mg/d) over 5 years. Incidence of invasive breast cancer, uterine cancer, noninvasive breast cancer, bone fractures, thromboembolic events. There were 163 cases of invasive breast cancer in women assigned to tamoxifen and 168 in those assigned to raloxifene (incidence, 4.30 per 1000 vs 4.41 per 1000; risk ratio [RR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-1.28). There were fewer cases of noninvasive breast cancer in the tamoxifen group (57 cases) than in the raloxifene group (80 cases) (incidence, 1.51 vs 2.11 per 1000; RR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.98-2.00). There were 36 cases of uterine cancer with tamoxifen and 23 with raloxifene (RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.35-1.08). No differences were found for other invasive cancer sites, for ischemic heart disease events, or for stroke. Thromboembolic events occurred less often in the raloxifene group (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54-0.91). The number of osteoporotic fractures in the groups was similar. There were fewer cataracts (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.92) and cataract surgeries (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.99) in the women taking raloxifene. There was no difference in the total number of deaths (101 vs 96 for tamoxifen vs raloxifene) or in causes of death. Raloxifene is as effective as tamoxifen in reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer and has a lower risk of thromboembolic events and cataracts but a nonstatistically significant higher risk of noninvasive breast cancer. The risk of other cancers, fractures, ischemic heart disease, and stroke is similar for both drugs. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00003906.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2009
                2009
                2 November 2009
                : 5
                : 817-827
                Affiliations
                New Mexico Clinical Research & Osteoporosis Center, Albuquerque, NM, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: E Michael Lewiecki, New Mexico Clinical Research & Osteoporosis Center, 300 Oak St. NE, Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA, Tel +1 505 855 5525, Fax +1 505 884 4006, Email lewiecki@ 123456aol.com
                Article
                tcrm-5-817
                2773750
                19898646
                © 2009 Lewiecki, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Medicine

                cp-336,156, bmd, safety, efficacy, fracture, serm, osteoporosis

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