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      Effect of picroside II on erythrocyte deformability and lipid peroxidation in rats subjected to hind limb ischemia reperfusion injury

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          Ischemia reperfusion injury (I/R) in hind limb is a frequent and important clinical phenomenon. Many structural and functional damages are observed in cells and tissues in these kinds of injuries. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of picroside II on lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte deformability during I/R in rats.


          Rats were randomly divided into four groups – each containing six animals (sham, I/R, sham + picroside II, and I/R + picroside II). The infrarenal section of the abdominal aorta was occluded with an atraumatic microvascular clamp in I/R groups. The clamp was removed after 120 minutes and reperfusion was provided for a further 120 minutes. Picroside II (10 mg·kg −1) was administered intraperitoneally to the animals in the appropriate groups (sham + picroside II, I/R + picroside II groups). All rats were euthanized by intraperitoneal administration of ketamine (100 mg·kg −1) and taking blood from the abdominal aorta. Erythrocytes were extracted from heparinized complete blood samples. Buffer (P T) and then erythrocytes (P E) were passed through the filtration system and the changes in pressure were measured to investigate the role of serum malondialdehyde and nitric oxide (NO) in lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte deformability index.


          Deformability index was significantly increased in the I/R group compared to groups sham, sham + picroside-II, and I/R + picroside-II ( P<0.0001, P<0.0001, and P=0.007). Malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO levels were evaluated. MDA level and NO activity were also higher in the I/R group than in the other groups. Picroside II treatment before hind limb I/R prevented these changes.


          These results support that deformability of erythrocytes is decreased in I/R injury and picroside II plays a critical role to prevent these alterations. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to evaluate and clarify the molecular mechanisms of action and clinical importance of these findings.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Determination of inorganic nitrate in serum and urine by a kinetic cadmium-reduction method.

           N W Wakid,  N Cortas (1990)
          Nitrate in serum and urine was assayed by a modification of the cadmium-reduction method; the nitrite produced was determined by diazotization of sulfanilamide and coupling to naphthylethylene diamine. After samples were deproteinized with Somogyi reagent, the nitrate was reduced by Cu-coated Cd in glycine buffer at pH 9.7 (2.5 to 3 g of Cd granules for a 4-mL reaction mixture). The reduction followed pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics, a convenient time interval for assay being 75 to 90 min. Maximum reduction (85%) occurred at about 2 h. Detection limits in urine or serum were 2 to 250 mumol/L. This method does not require the reaction to go to completion, does not require expensive reagents or equipment, and can assay several samples simultaneously. Repeated assays of two serum pools gave CVs of 9.0% and 4.7% for nitrate concentrations of 31.4 and 80.2 mumol/L, respectively (n = 20 each). The mean concentration of nitrate was 1704.0 +/- 1294 (SD) mumol/L (n = 21) in untimed normal urine, 81.8 +/- 50.1 mumol/L in serum of 38 renal dialysis patients, and 51.2 +/- 26.4 mumol/L in serum of 38 controls.
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            Neuroprotective Properties of Picroside II in a Rat Model of Focal Cerebral Ischemia

             Qin Li,  Zhen Li,  Xin-Ying Xu (2010)
            The aim of this study was to explore the effect of picroside II on neuronal apoptosis and the expression of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) following middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion in male Wistar rats. Picroside II (10 mg/kg) was administered intravenously into the tail vein of the animals. The neurological function deficits were evaluated with the Bederson’s test and the cerebral infarction volume was visualized with tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The apoptotic cells were counted by in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The immunohistochemistry stain and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the expressions of caspase-3 and PARP in brain tissue. The results indicated that rats in the control group showed neurological function deficit and cerebral infarction in ischemic hemisphere after two hours ischemia followed by 22 hours reperfusion. Caspase-3 and PARP expressions were also profound in the cortex, the striatum and the hippocampus, along with increased apoptotic cells in this group. Bederson’s score, infarction volume, and expressions of caspase-3 and PARP, as well as apoptosis in the treatment group were, however, significantly decreased compared to those in the control group indicating that intravenous treatment with picroside II might be beneficial to inhibit neuronal apoptosis and, thus, to improve the neurological function of rats upon cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury.
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              Effect of superoxide anions on red blood cell rheologic properties.

              The human red blood cell (RBC) is known to be susceptible to oxidant damage, with both structural and functional properties altered consequent to oxidant attack. Such oxidant-related alterations may lead to changes of RBC rheologic behavior (i.e., deformability, aggregability). Two different models of oxidant stress were used in this study to generate superoxide anions either internal or external to the RBC. Our results indicate that generation of superoxide within the RBC by phenazine methosulfate decreases RBC deformability without effects on cell aggregation. Conversely, superoxide generated externally by the xanthine oxidase-hypoxanthine system primarily affects RBC aggregability: the shear rate necessary to disaggregate RBC was markedly increased while the extent of aggregation decreased slightly. Increased disaggregation shear rate (i.e., greater aggregate strength) as a result of superoxide radical damage may adversely affect the dynamics of blood flow in low-shear portions of the circulation, and may also play a role in the no-reflow phenomena encountered after ischemia-reperfusion.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                01 March 2016
                : 10
                : 927-931
                [1 ]Department of Physiology, Kirikkale University Medical Faculty, Kirikkale, Turkey
                [2 ]Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Gazi University Medical Faculty, Ankara, Turkey
                [3 ]Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Necip Fazıl State Hospital, Kahramanmaras, Turkey
                [4 ]Department of Physiology, Ankara University Medical Faculty, Ankara, Turkey
                [5 ]Department of Physiology, Dumlupinar University Medical Faculty, Kütahyav
                [6 ]Department of Biochemistry, Kirikkale University Medical Faculty, Kirikkale, Turkey
                [7 ]Department of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation, Gazi University Medical Faculty, Ankara, Turkey
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mustafa Arslan, Department of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation, Gazi University Medical Faculty, 06510, Beşevler, Ankara, Turkey, Tel +90 312 202 67 39, Email mustarslan@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2016 Çomu et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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