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      New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation in Bacteremia Is Not Associated with C-Reactive Protein, but Is an Indicator of Increased Mortality during Hospitalization

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          Abstract

          Background: Several studies have associated elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels to the occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF). We sought to estimate the frequency and prognostic impact of AF in patients with bacteremia, and to study the possible association between AF and CRP as well as between AF and mortality in this population. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patient charts of patients with bacteremia with Escherichia coli or Streptococcus pneumoniae admitted to the Aker University Hospital in Oslo between 1994 and 2004. Known cardiac risk factors for AF, signs and mode of conversion of AF, and, if applicable, date of death were registered, as were characteristics of infection, such as systemic inflammatory response syndrome and white blood cell count. Initial CRP values were categorized into 4 strata. Odds ratios of the 3 highest CRP categories compared with the lowest were obtained from logistic models adjusting for known cardiac risk factors for AF as well as possible factors that may have had an impact on the odds ratios for the different CRP levels. Cox regression analysis was used to compare new-onset AF and death during the first 2 weeks after hospitalization. Results: A total of 672 patient charts were studied; 104 patients (15.4%) had new-onset AF. Peak incidence of new-onset AF occurred on the day of admission. Peak CRP values were reached during the following 2 days. High CRP level at admission did not predict the occurrence of AF. The observed mortality was higher among patients with new-onset AF (p = 0.001) during the first 2 weeks after hospitalization, but this effect disappears when adjusted for relevant factors. Conclusions: The frequency of new-onset AF in bacteremia is substantial. Initial CRP levels or white blood cell count do not seem to predict new-onset AF, as opposed to systemic inflammatory response syndrome. On the other hand, in patients with bacteremia, new-onset AF should be viewed as an indicator of increased mortality and morbidity.

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          Most cited references 29

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          A simplified acute physiology score for ICU patients.

          We used 14 easily measured biologic and clinical variables to develop a simple scoring system reflecting the risk of death in ICU patients. The simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) was evaluated in 679 consecutive patients admitted to eight multidisciplinary referral ICUs in France. Surgery accounted for 40% of admissions. Data were collected during the first 24 h after ICU admission. SAPS correctly classified patients in groups of increasing probability of death, irrespective of diagnosis, and compared favorably with the acute physiology score (APS), a more complex scoring system which has also been applied to ICU patients. SAPS was a simpler and less time-consuming method for comparative studies and management evaluation between different ICUs.
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            C-Reactive Protein Elevation in Patients With Atrial Arrhythmias

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              Alpha-haemolysin of uropathogenic E. coli induces Ca2+ oscillations in renal epithelial cells.

               A Aperia,  H Brismar,  G Celsi (2000)
              Pyelonephritis is one of the most common febrile diseases in children. If not treated appropriately, it causes irreversible renal damage and accounts for a large proportion of end stage renal failures. Renal scarring can occur in the absence of inflammatory cells, indicating that bacteria may have a direct signalling effect on renal cells. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) oscillations can protect cells from the cytotoxic effects of prolonged increases in intracellular calcium. However, no pathophysiologically relevant protein that induces such oscillations has been identified. Here we show that infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli induces a constant, low-frequency oscillatory [Ca2+]i response in target primary rat renal epithelial cells induced by the secreted RTX (repeats-in-toxin) toxin alpha-haemolysin. The response depends on calcium influx through L-type calcium channels as well as from internal stores gated by inositol triphosphate. Internal calcium oscillations induced by alpha-haemolysin in a renal epithelial cell line stimulated production of cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Our findings indicate a novel role for alpha-haemolysin in pyelonephritis: as an inducer of an oscillating second messenger response in target cells, which fine-tunes gene expression during the inflammatory response.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2008
                September 2008
                25 April 2008
                : 111
                : 3
                : 171-180
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Cardiology, bLaboratory of Bacteriology and cResearch Division, Aker University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, dFaculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
                Article
                121600 Cardiology 2008;111:171–180
                10.1159/000121600
                18434721
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 46, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Research

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