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      Resveratrol downregulates TNF-α-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in primary rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells by P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling

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          Background: To evaluate the effects of resveratrol to monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in this process in vitro.

          Materials and methods: Animal acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) model: rat model was established by infusion of an autologous blood clot into the pulmonary artery through a polyethylene catheter. One hundred and thirty-two rats were randomly and equally divided into ten groups: rats-control (untreated), rats-1% DMSO, rats-TNF-α, rats-TNF-α + resveratrol, rats-TNF-α +C1142, rats-TNF-α+SB203580, rats-TNF-α+resveratrol + SB203580, rats-resveratrol only, rats-C1142 only, and rats-SB203580 only. Rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells (RPAs) tests: RPAs were isolated from above animal and designated as: RPAs-control, RPAs-1% DMSO control, RPAs-TNF-α, RPAs-TNF-α + resveratrol, RPAs-TNF-α + C1142, RPAs-TNF-α + SB203580, RPAs-TNF-α + resveratrol + SB203580, RPAs-resveratrol only, RPAs-C1142 only, and RPAs-SB203580 only. Each group was further divided into 1, 4, and 8 hrs time point for evaluation (n=6 rats per time point) except RPAs-TNF-α + SB203580, RPAs-TNF-α + resveratrol + SB203580, RPAs-C1142 and RPAs-SB203580 only, which were evaluated at 8 hrs time point. At each time point, mRNA and protein expressions of RPAs of MCP-1 were measured. The phosphorylation of p38 MAPK (p-pMAPK) of RPAs was also detected.

          Results: We found that the RPAs-TNF-α elicited significant increases in MCP-1 expression and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK). Furthermore, the MCP-1 expressions of RPAs-Resveratrol, RPAs-C1142, and RPAs-SB203580 were significantly down-regulated, which was associated with robustly suppressed TNF-α-induced p-p38MAPK expression.

          Conclusion: Our findings suggested that MCP-1 was involved in the formation of TNF-α-induced inflammatory response, and resveratrol could down-regulate the expression of MCP-1 via TNF-α- inhibition, which might contribute to the decline of acute PTE-induced PH in vivo.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Activation of Sirt1 by Resveratrol Inhibits TNF-α Induced Inflammation in Fibroblasts

          Inflammation is one of main mechanisms of autoimmune disorders and a common feature of most diseases. Appropriate suppression of inflammation is a key resolution to treat the diseases. Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) has been shown to play a role in regulation of inflammation. Resveratrol, a potent Sirt1 activator, has anti-inflammation property. However, the detailed mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammation role of Sirt1 in NIH/3T3 fibroblast cell line. Upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP-9), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-6 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in 3T3 cells and resveratrol suppressed overexpression of these pro-inflammatory molecules in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of Sirt1 by RNA interference caused 3T3 cells susceptible to TNF-α stimulation and diminished anti-inflammatory effect of resveratrol. We also explored potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms of resveratrol. Resveratrol reduced NF-κB subunit RelA/p65 acetylation, which is notably Sirt1 dependent. Resveratrol also attenuated phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP) while ameliorating inflammation. Our data demonstrate that resveratrol inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammation via Sirt1. It suggests that Sirt1 is an efficient target for regulation of inflammation. This study provides insight on treatment of inflammation-related diseases.
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            Pathophysiology and treatment of haemodynamic instability in acute pulmonary embolism: the pivotal role of pulmonary vasoconstriction.

             Fren Smulders (2000)
            Acute massive pulmonary embolism has a high mortality rate. Fatal haemodynamic deterioration is caused by an acute increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. Traditionally, the degree of mechanical obstruction of the pulmonary vasculature by the embolic thrombus is considered to be the major determinant of this increase in right ventricular afterload. However, there is evidence to suggest that another factor plays an important role, since there is a marked discrepancy between the haemodynamic manifestations of acute pulmonary embolism and the degree of mechanical obstruction. Historic studies indicate that this discrepancy is largely explained by pulmonary vasoconstriction caused by vasoactive mediators, released mainly by activated platelets. Thromboxane-A(2) and serotonin are probably the two most important pulmonary vasoconstrictors in this context. Antagonising their effects dramatically increases tolerance to experimental pulmonary embolism in animals. In humans, this concept should eventually find its way into clinical practice. In the future, acute massive pulmonary embolism could be treated with antagonists to pulmonary vasoconstrictors, or with direct pulmonary vasodilators.
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              Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase as a therapeutic strategy.

              Since the discovery of p38 MAP kinase in 1994, our understanding of its biology has progressed dramatically. The key advances include (1) identification of p38 MAP kinase homologs and protein kinases that act upstream and downstream from p38 MAP kinase, (2) identification of interesting and potentially important substrates, (3) elucidation of the role of p38 MAP kinase in cellular processes and (4) the establishment of the mechanism by which the pyridinylimidazole p38 MAP kinase inhibitors inhibit enzyme activity. It is now known that there are four members of the p38 MAP kinase family. They differ in their tissue distribution, regulation of kinase activation and subsequent phosphorylation of downstream substrates. They also differ in terms of their sensitivities toward the p38 MAP kinase inhibitors. The best-studied isoform is p38 alpha, whose activation has been observed in many hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types upon treatment with appropriate stimuli. The pyridinylimidazole compounds, exemplified by SB 203580, were originally prepared as inflammatory cytokine synthesis inhibitors that subsequently were found to be selective inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase. SB 203580 inhibits the catalytic activity of p38 MAP kinase by competitive binding in the ATP pocket. X-ray crystallographic studies of the target enzyme complexed with inhibitor reinforce the observations made from site-directed mutagenesis studies, thereby providing a molecular basis for understanding the kinase selectivity of these inhibitors. The p38 MAP kinase inhibitors are efficacious in several disease models, including inflammation, arthritis and other joint diseases, septic shock, and myocardial injury. In all cases, p38 activation in key cell types correlated with disease initiation and progression. Treatment with p38 MAP kinase inhibitors attenuated both p38 activation and disease severity. Structurally diverse p38 MAP kinase inhibitors have been tested extensively in preclinical studies.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                27 May 2019
                : 13
                : 1843-1853
                [1 ]Department of Cardiology, Xiasha Campus, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University , Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Wenzhou Medical University , Wenzhou 325600, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, People’s Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College , Hangzhou 310014, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University , Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Chun ChenDepartment of Respiratory Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, People’s Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College , 158 Shang Tang Road, Hangzhou310014, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of ChinaEmail c.chunchen@ 123456aol.com
                © 2019 Lin et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 1, References: 29, Pages: 11
                Original Research


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