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      Post-Treatment Edema after Meningioma Radiosurgery is a Predictable Complication

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          Abstract

          Symptomatic post-treatment edema (PTE) causing seizures, focal deficits, and intracranial hypertension is a rather common complication of meningioma radiosurgery. Factors associated to the occurrence of PTE still needs to be clarified. We retrospectively analyzed our patients’ data to identify factors associated with the development of symptomatic PTE. Supposed risk factors were systematically analyzed.

          Between July 2007 and March 2014, 245 meningiomas in 229 patients were treated by a single fraction or multisession radiosurgery (2-5 fractions) or hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (6-15 fractions) using the CyberKnife system (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) at the University Hospital of Messina, Italy.

          Local tumor control was achieved in 200 of 212 patients with World Health Organization (WHO) Grade I meningiomas (94%) at a mean follow-up of 62 months. Symptomatic PTE on MRI was diagnosed in 19 patients (8.3%) causing seizure (n=17, 89%), aggravating headache (n=12, 63%), or focal deficits (n=13, 68%). Four variables were found to be associated with the likelihood of edema development, including tumor volume > 4.5 mL, non-basal tumor location, tight brain/tumor interface, and atypical histology. Nonetheless, when multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, only tumor volume and brain-tumor interface turned out to be independent predictors of PTE development.

          Our results suggest that the factor associated with the risk of developing PTE is associated to characteristics of meningioma rather than to the treatment modality used. Accordingly, an appropriate patient selection is the way to achieve safe treatment and long-term disease control.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Radiosurgery as definitive management of intracranial meningiomas.

          Stereotactic radiosurgery has become an important primary or adjuvant minimally invasive management strategy for patients with intracranial meningiomas with the goals of long-term tumor growth prevention and maintenance of patient neurological function. We evaluated clinical and imaging outcomes of meningiomas stratified by histological tumor grade. The patient cohort consisted of 972 patients with 1045 intracranial meningiomas managed during an 18-year period. The series included 70% women, 49% of whom had undergone a previous resection and 5% of whom had received previous fractionated radiation therapy. Tumor locations included middle fossa (n = 351), posterior fossa (n = 307), convexity (n = 126), anterior fossa (n = 88), parasagittal region (n = 113), or other (n = 115). The overall control rate for patients with benign meningiomas (World Health Organization Grade I) was 93%. In those without previous histological confirmation (n = 482), tumor control was 97%. However, for patients with World Health Organization Grade II and III tumors, tumor control was 50 and 17%, respectively. Delayed resection after radiosurgery was necessary in 51 patients (5%) at a mean of 35 months. After 10 years, Grade 1 tumors were controlled in 91% (n = 53); in those without histology, 95% (n = 22) were controlled. None of the patients developed a radiation-induced tumor. The overall morbidity rate was 7.7%. Symptomatic peritumoral imaging changes developed in 4% of the patients at a mean of 8 months. Stereotactic radiosurgery provided high rates of tumor growth control or regression in patients with benign meningiomas with low risk. This study confirms the role of radiosurgery as an effective management choice for patients with small to medium-sized symptomatic, newly diagnosed or recurrent meningiomas of the brain.
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            Meningioma radiosurgery: tumor control, outcomes, and complications among 190 consecutive patients.

            To determine local control (LC) and complication rates for patients with intracranial meningiomas who underwent radiosurgery. One hundred ninety consecutive patients with 206 meningiomas underwent radiosurgery between 1990 and 1998. One hundred forty-seven tumors (77%) involved the cranial base. The median age at the time of radiosurgery was 58 years (range, 20-90 yr). There were 126 female patients (66%). One hundred twelve patients (59%) had undergone one or more previous operations (median, 1; range, 1-5). Twenty-two patients (12%) had either atypical (n = 13) or malignant (n = 9) tumors. The median prescription isodose volume was 8.2 cm(3) (range, 0.5-50.5 cm(3)), and the median tumor margin dose was 16 Gy (range, 12-36 Gy). The median imaging and clinical follow-up periods were 40 and 47 months, respectively. Overall survival rates for the entire cohort at 5 and 7 years were 82 and 82%, respectively; cause-specific survival rates at 5 and 7 years were 94 and 92%, respectively. The cause-specific survival rates at 5 years for patients with benign, atypical, and malignant tumors were 100, 76, and 0%, respectively (P < 0.0001). The 5-year LC rate was 89%, with 114 tumors (56%) decreasing in size. LC rates were correlated with tumor histological features (P < 0.0001); patients with benign tumors exhibited a 5-year LC rate of 93%, compared with 68 and 0% for patients with atypical or malignant meningiomas, respectively. No correlation was observed between radiation dose and LC rate. Twenty-four patients (13%) experienced treatment-related complications, including cranial nerve deficits (8%), symptomatic parenchymal changes (3%), internal carotid artery stenosis (1%), and symptomatic cyst formation (1%). Only six patients (3%) exhibited decreases in functional status that were directly related to radiosurgery. Tumor volume, tumor margin dose, or previous radiotherapy was not associated with the development of radiation-related complications. Radiosurgery is an effective management strategy for many patients with meningiomas. Patients with atypical or malignant tumors exhibit high recurrence rates despite the use of radiosurgery, and these patients continue to exhibit worse cause-specific survival rates despite aggressive treatment, including surgery, external-beam radiotherapy, and radiosurgery. Further study is needed to determine the tumor control and complication rates 10 years or more after meningioma radiosurgery.
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              Complications after gamma knife radiosurgery for benign meningiomas.

              To analyse the results of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) for the treatment of intracranial meningiomas and to assess possible factors related to the outcome and complications of such treatment. The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiological data of 179 patients (194 lesions) treated with GKS for meningiomas between May 1992 and October 2000. The mean follow up duration was 37.3 months (range 6.4 to 86.3 months). The study determined the correlation between radiosurgical outcome including imaging changes after GKS and multiple factors such as tumour location and size, patient characteristics, venous sinus status, pre-GKS degree of oedema, other treatment modalities, and radiosurgical parameters. The radiological control rate was 97.1%. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed complications after GKS in 35 lesions (25.0%) among the 140 lesions followed up with MRI. Complications were divided into peritumorous imaging changes (33 lesions; 23.6%) and transient cranial nerve dysfunction (two lesions; 1.4%). Radiation induced imaging changes were seen mostly in convexity, parasagittal, and falx meningiomas that were deeply embedded in the cortex. About 60% of these were asymptomatic and the overall rate of symptomatic imaging changes was 9.3%. Neurological deficit related to imaging changes developed in only three patients, and all the symptoms were transient. GKS for intracranial meningiomas seems to be a safe and effective treatment. However, meningiomas of the convexity, parasagittal region, or falx cerebri have a higher incidence of peritumorous imaging changes after GKS than those of the skull base. Therefore, the use of GKS needs to be considered very cautiously in cerebral hemispheric meningiomas, taking into consideration patient age and general condition, tumour size and location, pattern of cortical embedding, relation between the tumour and venous sinuses, presenting symptoms, and patient preference.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cureus
                Cureus
                2168-8184
                Cureus
                Cureus (Palo Alto (CA) )
                2168-8184
                9 May 2016
                May 2016
                : 8
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Messina
                [2 ] Radiation Oncology, University of Messina
                [3 ] Neuroradiology, University of Messina
                Author notes
                Article
                10.7759/cureus.605
                4905703
                27330873
                Copyright © 2016, Conti et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Radiation Oncology
                Neurosurgery

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