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      Human PRMT5 Expression Is Enhanced during in vitro Tubule Formation and after in vivo Ischemic Injury in Renal Epithelial Cells

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          Abstract

          Background: The interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are important in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. Cells cultured in ECM differentiate and develop tubular structures. The kidney has the ability to partially recover function after an ischemic insult through repairing its tubular epithelium. The factors that contribute to tubule formation in vitro may mediate tubule regeneration in the recovery stage of acute tubular necrosis. Methods: RNA purified from cells grown on plastic, on Matrigel and in Matrigel matrix were subjected to differential display analysis to identify the transcripts that are differentially expressed during in vitro tubulogenesis. Results: Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) expression increased in renal epithelial cells undergoing tubule formation. PRMT5 expression is developmentally regulated and ubiquitously expressed in a variety of adult tissues. We also demonstrated that expression of PRMT5 is enhanced in the renal tubular epithelium of animals subjected to ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI). Conclusion: The role of PRMT5 in the regulation of mitosis, its induction in renal epithelial cells undergoing tubule formation in vitro and its expression in the tubules of the kidneys subjected to IRI suggest that it functions in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation during tubule formation and regeneration.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Methylation of Sm proteins by a complex containing PRMT5 and the putative U snRNP assembly factor pICln.

          Seven Sm proteins, termed B/B', D1, D2, D3, E, F, and G, assemble in an ordered manner onto U snRNAs to form the Sm core of the spliceosomal snRNPs U1, U2, U4/U6, and U5. The survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein binds to Sm proteins and mediates in the context of a macromolecular (SMN-) complex the assembly of the Sm core. Binding of SMN to Sm proteins is enhanced by modification of specific arginine residues in the Sm proteins D1 and D3 to symmetrical dimethylarginines (sDMAs), suggesting that assembly might be regulated at the posttranslational level. Here we provide evidence that the previously described pICln-complex, consisting of Sm proteins, the methyltransferase PRMT5, pICln, and two novel factors, catalyzes the sDMA modification of Sm proteins. In vitro studies further revealed that the pICln complex inhibits the spontaneous assembly of Sm proteins onto a U snRNA. This effect is mediated by pICln via its binding to the Sm fold of Sm proteins, thereby preventing specific interactions between Sm proteins required for the formation of the Sm core. Our data suggest that the pICln complex regulates an early step in the assembly of U snRNPs, possibly the transfer of Sm proteins to the SMN-complex.
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            The methylosome, a 20S complex containing JBP1 and pICln, produces dimethylarginine-modified Sm proteins.

            snRNPs, integral components of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery, consist of seven Sm proteins which assemble in the cytoplasm as a ring structure on the snRNAs U1, U2, U4, and U5. The survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, the spinal muscular atrophy disease gene product, is crucial for snRNP core particle assembly in vivo. SMN binds preferentially and directly to the symmetrical dimethylarginine (sDMA)-modified arginine- and glycine-rich (RG-rich) domains of SmD1 and SmD3. We found that the unmodified, but not the sDMA-modified, RG domains of SmD1 and SmD3 associate with a 20S methyltransferase complex, termed the methylosome, that contains the methyltransferase JBP1 and a JBP1-interacting protein, pICln. JBP1 binds SmD1 and SmD3 via their RG domains, while pICln binds the Sm domains. JBP1 produces sDMAs in the RG domain-containing Sm proteins. We further demonstrate the existence of a 6S complex that contains pICln, SmD1, and SmD3 but not JBP1. SmD3 from the methylosome, but not that from the 6S complex, can be transferred to the SMN complex in vitro. Together with previous results, these data indicate that methylation of Sm proteins by the methylosome directs Sm proteins to the SMN complex for assembly into snRNP core particles and suggest that the methylosome can regulate snRNP assembly.
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              Arginine N-methyltransferase 1 is required for early postimplantation mouse development, but cells deficient in the enzyme are viable.

              Protein arginine N-methyltransferases have been implicated in a variety of processes, including cell proliferation, signal transduction, and protein trafficking. In this study, we have characterized essentially a null mutation induced by insertion of the U3betaGeo gene trap retrovirus into the second intron of the mouse protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 gene (Prmt1). cDNAs encoding two forms of Prmt1 were characterized, and the predicted protein sequences were found to be highly conserved among vertebrates. Expression of the Prmt1-betageo fusion gene was greatest along the midline of the neural plate and in the forming head fold from embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5) to E8.5 and in the developing central nervous system from E8.5 to E13.5. Homozygous mutant embryos failed to develop beyond E6.5, a phenotype consistent with a fundamental role in cellular metabolism. However, Prmt1 was not required for cell viability, as the protein was not detected in embryonic stem (ES) cell lines established from mutant blastocysts. Low levels of Prmt1 transcripts (approximately 1% of the wild-type level) were detected as assessed by a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay. Total levels of arginine N-methyltransferase activity and asymmetric N(G), N(G)-dimethylarginine were reduced by 85 and 54%, respectively, while levels of hypomethylated substrates were increased 15-fold. Prmt1 appears to be a major type I enzyme in ES cells, and in wild-type cells, most substrates of the enzyme appear to be maintained in a fully methylated state.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2004
                April 2004
                08 April 2004
                : 24
                : 2
                : 250-257
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Pediatric Nephrology and Hypertension, Institute for Molecular Medicine, Houston, Tex.; bDivision of Nephrology and Hypertension, Children’s Hospital Research Foundation, cDepartment of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
                Article
                77397 Am J Nephrol 2004;24:250–257
                10.1159/000077397
                15031628
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 60, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/77397
                Categories
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

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