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      A new Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes: Characidae) of the Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus species-group from the lower Amazon basin, Brazil

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          ABSTRACT A new species of Hyphessobrycon belonging to the Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus species-group from the lower rio Tapajós, state of Pará, Brazil, is described. The new species is allocated into the Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus species-group due to its color pattern, composed by an anteriorly well-defined, horizontally elongated humeral blotch that becomes diffuse and blurred posteriorly, where it overlaps with a conspicuous midlateral dark stripe that becomes blurred towards the caudal peduncle and the presence, in living specimens, of a tricolored longitudinal pattern composed by a dorsal red or reddish longitudinal stripe, a middle iridescent, golden or silvery longitudinal stripe, and a more ventrally-lying longitudinal dark pattern composed by the humeral blotch and dark midlateral stripe. It can be distinguished from all other species of the group by possessing humeral blotch with a straight or slightly rounded ventral profile, lacking a ventral expansion present in all other species of the group. The new species is also distinguished from Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus by a 9.6% genetic distance in the cytochrome c oxidase I gene. The little morphological distinction of the new species when compared with its most similar congener, H. heterorhabdus, indicates that the new species is one of the first truly cryptic fish species described from the Amazon basin.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMO Uma nova espécie de Hyphessobrycon pertencente ao grupo Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus é descrita da região do baixo rio Tapajós, estado do Pará, Brasil. A nova espécie é incluída no grupo Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus devido ao seu padrão de coloração, composto por uma mancha umeral alongada, anteriormente bem definida, que se torna difusa e borrada posteriormente, onde se sobrepõe a uma conspícua faixa escura médio-lateral que se torna borrada próxima ao pedúnculo caudal, e pela presença, em exemplares vivos, de um padrão longitudinal tricolor, composto por uma faixa longitudinal vermelha ou avermelhada dorsal, uma faixa média iridescente dourada ou prateada e, mais ventralmente, o padrão longitudinal escuro composto pela faixa escura médio-lateral e mancha umeral. A espécie pode ser distinguida das outras espécies pertencentes ao grupo por possuir uma mancha umeral com região ventral retilínea ou levemente arredondada, sem uma expansão ventral presente nas demais espécies do grupo. A espécie também se diferencia de Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus por uma distância genética de 9,6% no gene citocromo c oxidase I. A sutil diferença morfológica da nova espécie quando comparada ao seu congênere mais similar, H. heterorhabdus, indica que a nova espécie é uma das primeiras espécies de peixes verdadeiramente crípticas descritas da Bacia Amazônica.

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          Most cited references 49

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          The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice

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              A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences.

               Motoo Kimura (1980)
              Some simple formulae were obtained which enable us to estimate evolutionary distances in terms of the number of nucleotide substitutions (and, also, the evolutionary rates when the divergence times are known). In comparing a pair of nucleotide sequences, we distinguish two types of differences; if homologous sites are occupied by different nucleotide bases but both are purines or both pyrimidines, the difference is called type I (or "transition" type), while, if one of the two is a purine and the other is a pyrimidine, the difference is called type II (or "transversion" type). Letting P and Q be respectively the fractions of nucleotide sites showing type I and type II differences between two sequences compared, then the evolutionary distance per site is K = -(1/2) ln [(1-2P-Q) square root of 1-2Q]. The evolutionary rate per year is then given by k = K/(2T), where T is the time since the divergence of the two sequences. If only the third codon positions are compared, the synonymous component of the evolutionary base substitutions per site is estimated by K'S = -(1/2) ln (1-2P-Q). Also, formulae for standard errors were obtained. Some examples were worked out using reported globin sequences to show that synonymous substitutions occur at much higher rates than amino acid-altering substitutions in evolution.

                Author and article information

                Neotropical Ichthyology
                Neotrop. ichthyol.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia (Maringá, PR, Brazil )
                : 19
                : 1
                Botucatu orgnameUniversidade Estadual Paulista orgdiv1Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu orgdiv2Laboratório de Biologia e Genética de Peixes Brazil claudio.oliveira@ 123456unesp.br
                Campinas São Paulo orgnameUniversidade Estadual de Campinas orgdiv1Museu de Zoologia Brazil tiago_faria5@ 123456hotmail.com
                Santarém Pará orgnameUniversidade Federal do Oeste do Pará orgdiv1Instituto de Ciências da Educação orgdiv2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Naturais da Amazônia Brazil karen.guimaraes.bio@ 123456gmail.com
                S1679-62252021000100207 S1679-6225(21)01900100207

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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