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      Polyunsaturated fatty acids and fatty acid-derived lipid mediators: Recent advances in the understanding of their biosynthesis, structures, and functions

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          Abstract

          Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are structural components of membrane phospholipids, and influence cellular function via effects on membrane properties, and also by acting as a precursor pool for lipid mediators. These lipid mediators are formed via activation of pathways involving at least one step of dioxygen-dependent oxidation, and are consequently called oxylipins. Their biosynthesis can be either enzymatically-dependent, utilising the promiscuous cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, or cytochrome P450 mixed function oxidase pathways, or nonenzymatic via free radical-catalyzed pathways. The oxylipins include the classical eicosanoids, comprising prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes, and also more recently identified lipid mediators. With the advent of new technologies there is growing interest in identifying these different lipid mediators and characterising their roles in health and disease. This review brings together contributions from some of those at the forefront of research into lipid mediators, who provide brief introductions and summaries of current understanding of the structure and functions of the main classes of nonclassical oxylipins. The topics covered include omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA biosynthesis pathways, focusing on the roles of the different fatty acid desaturase enzymes, oxidized linoleic acid metabolites, omega-3 PUFA-derived specialized pro-resolving mediators, elovanoids, nonenzymatically oxidized PUFAs, and fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids.

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          Pulmonary Vascular Endothelialitis, Thrombosis, and Angiogenesis in Covid-19

          Progressive respiratory failure is the primary cause of death in the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. Despite widespread interest in the pathophysiology of the disease, relatively little is known about the associated morphologic and molecular changes in the peripheral lung of patients who die from Covid-19.
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            Ferroptosis: mechanisms, biology and role in disease

            The research field of ferroptosis has seen exponential growth over the past few years, since the term was coined in 2012. This unique modality of cell death, driven by iron-dependent phospholipid peroxidation, is regulated by multiple cellular metabolic pathways, including redox homeostasis, iron handling, mitochondrial activity and metabolism of amino acids, lipids and sugars, in addition to various signalling pathways relevant to disease. Numerous organ injuries and degenerative pathologies are driven by ferroptosis. Intriguingly, therapy-resistant cancer cells, particularly those in the mesenchymal state and prone to metastasis, are exquisitely vulnerable to ferroptosis. As such, pharmacological modulation of ferroptosis, via both its induction and its inhibition, holds great potential for the treatment of drug-resistant cancers, ischaemic organ injuries and other degenerative diseases linked to extensive lipid peroxidation. In this Review, we provide a critical analysis of the current molecular mechanisms and regulatory networks of ferroptosis, the potential physiological functions of ferroptosis in tumour suppression and immune surveillance, and its pathological roles, together with a potential for therapeutic targeting. Importantly, as in all rapidly evolving research areas, challenges exist due to misconceptions and inappropriate experimental methods. This Review also aims to address these issues and to provide practical guidelines for enhancing reproducibility and reliability in studies of ferroptosis. Finally, we discuss important concepts and pressing questions that should be the focus of future ferroptosis research.
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              Ferroptosis: molecular mechanisms and health implications

              Cell death can be executed through different subroutines. Since the description of ferroptosis as an iron-dependent form of non-apoptotic cell death in 2012, there has been mounting interest in the process and function of ferroptosis. Ferroptosis can occur through two major pathways, the extrinsic or transporter-dependent pathway and the intrinsic or enzyme-regulated pathway. Ferroptosis is caused by a redox imbalance between the production of oxidants and antioxidants, which is driven by the abnormal expression and activity of multiple redox-active enzymes that produce or detoxify free radicals and lipid oxidation products. Accordingly, ferroptosis is precisely regulated at multiple levels, including epigenetic, transcriptional, posttranscriptional and posttranslational layers. The transcription factor NFE2L2 plays a central role in upregulating anti-ferroptotic defense, whereas selective autophagy may promote ferroptotic death. Here, we review current knowledge on the integrated molecular machinery of ferroptosis and describe how dysregulated ferroptosis is involved in cancer, neurodegeneration, tissue injury, inflammation, and infection.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                7900832
                6672
                Prog Lipid Res
                Prog Lipid Res
                Progress in lipid research
                0163-7827
                1873-2194
                28 July 2022
                April 2022
                01 May 2022
                03 August 2022
                : 86
                : 101165
                Affiliations
                [a ]School of Life and Health Sciences, University of Roehampton, London, UK
                [b ]IBMM, University Montpellier, CNRS, ENSCM, Montpellier, France
                [c ]Neuroscience Center of Excellence, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, USA
                [d ]Depts of Pediatrics, of Chemistry and of Nutrition, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, University of Texas at Austin, TX, USA
                [e ]Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA
                [f ]Center for Experimental Therapeutics and Reperfusion Injury, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
                [g ]Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA, USA
                [h ]Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
                [i ]William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
                Author notes

                Author contributions

                SCD planned the manuscript and all authors contributed to the article.

                [* ]Corresponding author. Simon.Dyall@ 123456roehampton.ac.uk (S.C. Dyall).
                Article
                NIHMS1825963
                10.1016/j.plipres.2022.101165
                9346631
                35508275
                73bf0a35-dcc4-4099-974c-83859cc19158

                This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                Categories
                Article

                Biochemistry
                elovanoids,fahfa,fatty acid desaturase,lipid mediators,maresins,omega-3 pufa,oxylipins,protectins,resolvins,spm

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