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      Microwave-irradiation-assisted hybrid chemical approach for titanium dioxide nanoparticle synthesis: microbial and cytotoxicological evaluation

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          Strain specificity in antimicrobial activity of silver and copper nanoparticles.

          The antimicrobial properties of silver and copper nanoparticles were investigated using Escherichia coli (four strains), Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (three strains). The average sizes of the silver and copper nanoparticles were 3 nm and 9 nm, respectively, as determined through transmission electron microscopy. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectra of silver and copper nanoparticles revealed that while silver was in its pure form, an oxide layer existed on the copper nanoparticles. The bactericidal effect of silver and copper nanoparticles were compared based on diameter of inhibition zone in disk diffusion tests and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of nanoparticles dispersed in batch cultures. Bacterial sensitivity to nanoparticles was found to vary depending on the microbial species. Disk diffusion studies with E. coli and S. aureus revealed greater effectiveness of the silver nanoparticles compared to the copper nanoparticles. B. subtilis depicted the highest sensitivity to nanoparticles compared to the other strains and was more adversely affected by the copper nanoparticles. Good correlation was observed between MIC and MBC (r2=0.98) measured in liquid cultures. For copper nanoparticles a good negative correlation was observed between the inhibition zone observed in disk diffusion test and MIC/MBC determined based on liquid cultures with the various strains (r2=-0.75). Although strain-specific variation in MIC/MBC was negligible for S. aureus, some strain-specific variation was observed for E. coli.
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            Toxicity of silver nanoparticles - nanoparticle or silver ion?

            The toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been shown in many publications. Here we investigated to which degree the silver ion fraction of AgNP suspensions, contribute to the toxicity of AgNPs in A549 lung cells. Cell viability assays revealed that AgNP suspensions were more toxic when the initial silver ion fraction was higher. At 1.5μg/ml total silver, A549 cells exposed to an AgNP suspension containing 39% silver ion fraction showed a cell viability of 92%, whereas cells exposed to an AgNP suspension containing 69% silver ion fraction had a cell viability of 54% as measured by the MTT assay. In addition, at initial silver ion fractions of 5.5% and above, AgNP-free supernatant had the same toxicity as AgNP suspensions. Flow-cytometric analyses of cell cycle and apoptosis confirmed that there is no significant difference between the treatment with AgNP suspension and AgNP supernatant. Only AgNP suspensions with silver ion fraction of 2.6% or less were significantly more toxic than their supernatant as measured by MTT assays. From our data we conclude that at high silver ion fractions (≥5.5%) the AgNPs did not add measurable additional toxicity to the AgNP suspension, whereas at low silver ion fractions (≤2.6%) AgNP suspensions are more toxic than their supernatant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              ROS-mediated genotoxicity induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in human epidermal cells.

              Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2) NPs) are among the top five NPs used in consumer products, paints and pharmaceutical preparations. Since, exposure to such nanoparticles is mainly through the skin and inhalation, the present study was conducted in the human epidermal cells (A431). A mild cytotoxic response of TiO(2) NPs was observed as evident by the MTT and NR uptake assays after 48 h of exposure. However, a statistically significant (p<0.05) induction in the DNA damage was observed by the Fpg-modified Comet assay in cells exposed to 0.8 μg/ml TiO(2) NPs (2.20±0.26 vs. control 1.24±0.04) and higher concentrations for 6 h. A significant (p<0.05) induction in micronucleus formation was also observed at the above concentration (14.67±1.20 vs. control 9.33±1.00). TiO(2) NPs elicited a significant (p<0.05) reduction in glutathione (15.76%) with a concomitant increase in lipid hydroperoxide (60.51%; p<0.05) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation (49.2%; p<0.05) after 6h exposure. Our data demonstrate that TiO(2) NPs have a mild cytotoxic potential. However, they induce ROS and oxidative stress leading to oxidative DNA damage and micronucleus formation, a probable mechanism of genotoxicity. This is perhaps the first study on human skin cells demonstrating the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of TiO(2) NPs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Environmental Science and Pollution Research
                Environ Sci Pollut Res
                Springer Nature
                0944-1344
                1614-7499
                June 2016
                March 2016
                : 23
                : 12
                : 12287-12302
                Article
                10.1007/s11356-016-6440-8
                © 2016

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