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      Evaluation of Virus Reduction by Ultrafiltration with Coagulation-Sedimentation in Water Reclamation.

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          Abstract

          The evaluation of virus reduction in water reclamation processes is essential for proper assessment and management of the risk of infection by enteric viruses. Ultrafiltration (UF) with coagulation-sedimentation (CS) is potentially effective for efficient virus removal. However, its performance at removing indigenous viruses has not been evaluated. In this study, we evaluated the reduction of indigenous viruses by UF with and without CS in a pilot-scale water reclamation plant in Okinawa, Japan, by measuring the concentration of viruses using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Aichi virus (AiV) and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) were targeted in addition to the main enteric viruses of concern for risk management, namely, norovirus (NoV) genogroups I and II (GI and GII) and rotavirus (RoV). PMMoV, which is a plant pathogenic virus and is present at high concentrations in water contaminated by human feces, has been suggested as a useful viral indicator. We also investigated the reduction of a spiked model virus (F-specific RNA bacteriophage MS2) to measure the effect of viral inactivation by both qPCR and plaque assay. Efficiencies of removal of NoV GI, NoV GII, RoV, and AiV by UF with and without CS were >0.5 to 3.7 log10, although concentrations were below the detection limit in permeate water. PMMoV was the most prevalent virus in both feed and permeate water following UF, but CS pretreatment could not significantly improve its removal efficiency (mean removal efficiency: UF, 3.1 log10; CS + UF, 3.4 log10; t test, P > 0.05). CS increased the mean removal efficiency of spiked MS2 by only 0.3 log10 by qPCR (t-test, P > 0.05), but by 2.8 log10 by plaque assay (t-test, P < 0.01). This difference indicates that the virus was inactivated during CS + UF. Our results suggest that PMMoV could be used as an indicator of removal efficiency in water reclamation processes, but cultural assay is essential to understanding viral fate.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Food Environ Virol
          Food and environmental virology
          Springer Science and Business Media LLC
          1867-0342
          1867-0334
          December 2017
          : 9
          : 4
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Research Center for Environmental Quality Management, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, 1-2 Yumihama, Otsu, Shiga, 520-0811, Japan. leesuntae@biwa.eqc.kyoto-u.ac.jp.
          [2 ] Research Center for Environmental Quality Management, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, 1-2 Yumihama, Otsu, Shiga, 520-0811, Japan.
          Article
          10.1007/s12560-017-9301-9
          10.1007/s12560-017-9301-9
          28455611
          73d6abd0-c835-4889-b855-acabb26a7071
          History

          Pepper mild mottle virus,Inactivation,Coagulation–sedimentation,Water reclamation,Virus removal,Ultrafiltration

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