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      Management and outcomes of hyperparathyroidism: a case series from a single institution over two decades

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          Abstract

          Background

          Hyperparathyroidism is a frequent endocrine disorder with variable clinical manifestations and outcomes. We aimed to evaluate clinical presentations, management and outcomes of hyperparathyroidism.

          Methods

          A retrospective study was conducted to include all patients presented with hyperparathyroidism between 1995 and 2014 at a single tertiary hospital with an average follow-up period of 46 months. Data were reviewed for clinical presentations, diagnostic work-up, intraoperative findings, management, and outcomes.

          Result

          We identified 161 patients with hyperparathyroidism; 69% were females and the mean age was 49.4±15 years. Patients presented mainly with musculoskeletal (65.8%), renal (37.3%), gastrointestinal tract (53.8%) and neuropsychiatric (8.8%) manifestations. At presentation, mean serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were elevated while mean vitamin D level was lower. Sestamibi- 99mTc (MIBI) scintigraphy was done for 134 patients (83.2%) and was positive in 94 (70%). Primary hyperparathyroidism (67.7%) was the most frequent diagnosis followed by secondary (29.8%) and tertiary hyperparathyroidism (2.5%). The frequent indication for surgery was hypercalcemia (67.3%), bone disease (35.6%) and renal calculi (28.9%). The main postoperative pathology was parathyroid adenoma (63.1%) followed by hyperplasia (37.3%). Fourteen (8.9%) and 18 (11.4%) patients had persistent and recurrent hyperparathyroidism, respectively. Autotransplantation of parathyroid tissue was done in 36 cases.

          Conclusion

          Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most frequent cause of the parathyroid disease. Parathyroidectomy is the effective surgical approach in symptomatic patients. Further studies are needed to establish the association between vitamin D levels, renal disorders and persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Guidelines for the management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism: summary statement from the third international workshop.

           A. K. Azad Khan,  J. Potts,   (2009)
          Asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common clinical problem. The purpose of this report is to guide the use of diagnostics and management for this condition in clinical practice. Interested professional societies selected representatives for the consensus committee and provided funding for a one-day meeting. A subgroup of this committee set the program and developed key questions for review. Consensus was established at a closed meeting that followed and at subsequent discussions. Each question was addressed by a relevant literature search (on PubMed), and the data were presented for discussion at the group meeting. Consensus was achieved by a group meeting. Statements were prepared and reviewed by all authors who represented the Planning Committee and the participating professional societies.
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            Parathyroid imaging: technique and role in the preoperative evaluation of primary hyperparathyroidism.

            This article discusses the commonly used techniques for imaging the parathyroid glands and their role in the preoperative evaluation of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. The importance of sonography and sestamibi scintigraphy in the preoperative evaluation of patients with primary hyperthyroidism has increased with the adoption of minimally invasive parathyroidectomy techniques at most medical centers. When the results of these studies are concordant, the cure rates of minimally invasive surgery equal those of traditional bilateral neck exploration.
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              Primary hyperparathyroidism revisited in menopausal women with serum calcium in the upper normal range at population-based screening 8 years ago.

              Population-based screening showed 2.1% prevalence of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) in postmenopausal women. Individuals with total serum (s)-calcium levels of 2.55 mmol/L or more at screening were diagnosed with pHPT when subsequent analysis supported inappropriately elevated intact parathormone (PTH) levels in relation to even normal s-calcium levels. The arbitrary diagnostic criteria were validated by parathyroidectomy. Herein we reinvestigated biochemical signs of pHPT in women not diagnosed with pHPT due to s-calcium 2.50 to 2.54 mmol/L (group A, n = 160) at screening or due to appropriate PTH levels on two occasions after screening (group B, n = 70). Altogether, 99 women in group A and 47 in group B underwent reinvestigation 8.8 years after screening when they were 65 to 84 years old. The s-calcium levels averaged 2.56 mmol/L and had increased in group A (mean 0.04 mmol/L) and decreased in group B (mean 0.05 mmol/L). A total of 48 and 18 females (48%, 38%), respectively, met the previously validated criteria of pHPT. Altogether 21% of them were hypercalcemic (range 2.60-3.12 mmol/L). Subgroup analysis showed that PTH had not increased with time (n = 47) and that atherogenic blood lipids, but not glucose levels, were similar in pHPT patients and matched controls (n = 37). Assuming the existence of pHPT already at screening, the prevalence of pHPT could be adjusted to 3.4%. Even the most liberal diagnostic criteria utilized at pHPT screening seemed to underdiagnose the disease by inefficient cutoff limits for s-calcium and PTH. Because one-fifth of the women with pHPT progressed to hypercalcemia, long-term follow-up is advocated for those with s-calcium in the upper normal range.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2018
                31 July 2018
                : 14
                : 1337-1345
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar
                [2 ]Clinical Research, Trauma & Vascular Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar, aymanco65@ 123456yahoo.com
                [3 ]Clinical Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar, aymanco65@ 123456yahoo.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ayman El-Menyar, Clinical Research, Trauma & Vascular Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, PO Box 3050, Doha, Qatar, Fax +97444394031, Email aymanco65@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                tcrm-14-1337
                10.2147/TCRM.S160896
                6074786
                © 2018 Al-Thani et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                qatar, hyperparathyroidism, renal disorders, parathyroidectomy

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