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      How the ageing microenvironment influences tumour progression

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      Nature Reviews Cancer

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Why don't we get more cancer? A proposed role of the microenvironment in restraining cancer progression.

          Tumors are like new organs and are made of multiple cell types and components. The tumor competes with the normal microenvironment to overcome antitumorigenic pressures. Before that battle is won, the tumor may exist within the organ unnoticed by the host, referred to as 'occult cancer'. We review how normal tissue homeostasis and architecture inhibit progression of cancer and how changes in the microenvironment can shift the balance of these signals to the procancerous state. We also include a discussion of how this information is being tailored for clinical use.
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            Chemokine signaling via the CXCR2 receptor reinforces senescence.

            Cells enter senescence, a state of stable proliferative arrest, in response to a variety of cellular stresses, including telomere erosion, DNA damage, and oncogenic signaling, which acts as a barrier against malignant transformation in vivo. To identify genes controlling senescence, we conducted an unbiased screen for small hairpin RNAs that extend the life span of primary human fibroblasts. Here, we report that knocking down the chemokine receptor CXCR2 (IL8RB) alleviates both replicative and oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) and diminishes the DNA-damage response. Conversely, ectopic expression of CXCR2 results in premature senescence via a p53-dependent mechanism. Cells undergoing OIS secrete multiple CXCR2-binding chemokines in a program that is regulated by the NF-kappaB and C/EBPbeta transcription factors and coordinately induce CXCR2 expression. CXCR2 upregulation is also observed in preneoplastic lesions in vivo. These results suggest that senescent cells activate a self-amplifying secretory network in which CXCR2-binding chemokines reinforce growth arrest.
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              Roles of matrix metalloproteinases in cancer progression and their pharmacological targeting.

              Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) consist of a multigene family of zinc-dependent extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling endopeptidases implicated in pathological processes, such as carcinogenesis. In this regard, their activity plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and the multistep processes of invasion and metastasis, including proteolytic degradation of ECM, alteration of the cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions, migration and angiogenesis. The underlying premise of the current minireview is that MMPs are able to proteolytically process substrates in the extracellular milieu and, in so doing, promote tumor progression. However, certain members of the MMP family exert contradicting roles at different stages during cancer progression, depending among other factors on the tumor stage, tumor site, enzyme localization and substrate profile. MMPs are therefore amenable to therapeutic intervention by synthetic and natural inhibitors, providing perspectives for future studies. Multiple therapeutic agents, called matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPIs) have been developed to target MMPs, attempting to control their enzymatic activity. Even though clinical trials with these compounds do not show the expected results in most cases, the field of MMPIs is ongoing. This minireview critically evaluates the role of MMPs in relation to cancer progression, and highlights the challenges, as well as future prospects, for the design, development and efficacy of MMPIs. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 FEBS.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Cancer
                Nat Rev Cancer
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1474-175X
                1474-1768
                December 13 2019
                Article
                10.1038/s41568-019-0222-9
                © 2019

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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