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      Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection-induced chronic bronchitis and emphysematous changes in CCSP-deficient mice

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          The club cell secretory protein (CCSP) is a regulator of lung inflammation following acute respiratory infection or lung injury. Recently, the relationship between CCSP and COPD has been reported. Since COPD results from an abnormal inflammatory response, we hypothesized that CCSP could have a protective role against chronic inflammation-induced lung damage. To address this issue, the pathophysiology of chronic lung inflammation induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in CCSP-deficient mice was determined. A tube of 5 mm in length was soaked in a fluid containing P. aeruginosa (PAO01 strain) for 1 week and inserted into the trachea of CCSP-deficient mice. One week later, P. aeruginosa was administered into the trachea. Five weeks after insertion of tube, the mice were sacrificed. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were collected to determine the bacterial growth, and the lung histology and physiology were also examined. P. aeruginosa was continuously detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids during the study. Neutrophils were increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from the CCSP-deficient mice in comparison to wild-type mice. A histological study demonstrated chronic inflammation around bronchus, serious bronchial stenosis, and alveolar enlargement in the CCSP-deficient mice. The lung physiology study demonstrated an increase in the lung compliance of the CCSP-deficient mice. Chronic P. aeruginosa inflammation resulted in chronic bronchitis and emphysematous changes in the CCSP-deficient mice. CCSP could play an important role in protecting the host from the chronic inflammation-induced lung damage.

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          Differences in interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in induced sputum from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma.

          Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Studies using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) have shown an increased proportion of eosinophils in the BAL fluid from asthmatics compared with that from normal subjects, whereas studies of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have shown increased numbers of neutrophils. Induced sputum allows sampling of respiratory tract secretions from patients and control subjects, providing a noninvasive method of studying airway secretions and allowing characterization of cells and measurement of soluble markers. We investigated whether induced sputum was a useful method of studying airway fluid from patients with moderate to severe COPD and whether it could be used to compare inflammation in this condition with that in asthma. An initial reproducibility study was undertaken. Sputum was induced twice in 13 patients with severe COPD at a 14-d interval. Total and differential cell counts were carried out and were found to be reproducible over this period. Sputum was then induced in 14 patients with COPD, 23 patients with asthma, 12 healthy cigarette smokers, and 16 normal nonsmoking control subjects. We found a significant increase in neutrophils and increased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the patients with COPD compared with the smoking and nonsmoking control subjects. Interleukin-8, but not TNF alpha, was significantly higher in the COPD group than in the asthmatic group. We conclude that the cytokines TNF alpha and IL-8 may be involved in the inflammation in COPD.
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            Ceramide upregulation causes pulmonary cell apoptosis and emphysema-like disease in mice.

            Alveolar cell apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of emphysema, a prevalent disease primarily caused by cigarette smoking. We report that ceramide, a second messenger lipid, is a crucial mediator of alveolar destruction in emphysema. Inhibition of enzymes controlling de novo ceramide synthesis prevented alveolar cell apoptosis, oxidative stress and emphysema caused by blockade of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors in both rats and mice. Emphysema was reproduced with intratracheal instillation of ceramide in naive mice. Excessive ceramide triggers a feed-forward mechanism mediated by activation of secretory acid sphingomyelinase, as suggested by experiments with neutralizing ceramide antibody in mice and with acid sphingomyelinase-deficient fibroblasts. Concomitant augmentation of signaling initiated by a prosurvival metabolite, sphingosine-1-phosphate, prevented lung apoptosis, implying that a balance between ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate is required for maintenance of alveolar septal integrity. Finally, increased lung ceramides in individuals with smoking-induced emphysema suggests that ceramide upregulation may be a crucial pathogenic element and a promising target in this disease that currently lacks effective therapies.
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              Number and proliferation of clara cells in normal human airway epithelium.

              Experimental pathologic studies suggest that Clara cells are one of the types of airway stem cells but the proliferation of Clara cells in human lungs has not yet been examined. The purpose of this study was to assess in conducting airways of normal human lungs: (1) the number of Clara cells; and (2) the contribution of Clara cells to the proliferation compartment. Samples of histologic normal tissue were taken from seven lungs obtained by autopsy. A triple sequential (immuno)histochemical staining was performed, using MIB-1 as a proliferation marker and anti-CC10 for the identification of Clara cells; subsequently, a PAS stain was carried out as a marker for goblet cells, as these cells were reported to be CC10-immunoreactive in an unknown proportion. Clara cells were virtually absent in the proximal airway epithelium. The number of Clara cells in the terminal bronchioles was 11 +/- 3% (mean +/- SD) and in respiratory bronchioles 22 +/- 5%. The overall proliferation compartment of the conducting airway epithelium was 0.83 +/- 0.47%; the contribution of Clara cells was 9%. In the terminal bronchioles 15% of proliferating airway epithelial cells were Clara cells, and in the respiratory bronchioles this number increased to 44%. The contribution of Clara cells to the proliferation compartment of normal human tracheobronchial epithelium is substantial, demonstrating a role of the Clara cell in the maintenance of the normal epithelium of the distal conducting airways in humans.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                20 September 2016
                : 11
                : 2321-2327
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University
                [2 ]Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka
                [3 ]Department of Occupational Pneumology, Institute of Industrial and Ecological Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Masaki Fujita, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, 7-45-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan, Tel +81 92 801 1011, Fax +81 92 865 6220, Email mfujita@
                © 2016 Matsumoto et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                chronic bronchitis, animal models, emphysema, inflammation


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