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      Development of a self-scored persistent airflow obstruction screening questionnaire in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama study

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          Abstract

          Background

          The use of a simple screening questionnaire to detect persistent airflow obstruction (AO) in COPD may facilitate the early, accurate diagnosis of COPD in general practice settings.

          Objective

          This study developed an original persistent AO questionnaire for screening individuals with COPD in a general Japanese population.

          Methods

          A working group was established to generate initial draft questionnaire items about COPD. Eligible subjects aged 40 and older living in Japan were solicited to participate in a health checkup from 2014 to 2015. In study I, 2,338 subjects who fully completed the initial draft questionnaire and who had valid spirometry measurements were statistically analyzed to determine the final questionnaire items as a COPD screening questionnaire (COPD-Q). Persistent AO was defined as a post-bronchodilator FEV 1/FVC <0.70. In study II, the working group analyzed the weighted scores for individual items and established a cutoff point for the COPD-Q based on the data of 2,066 subjects in the Hisayama study. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to examine the ability of the COPD-Q to discriminate between subjects with and without AO.

          Results

          The five-item COPD-Q was established based on 19 initial draft items in study I and the weighted scores of individual items. The overall area under the ROC curve for the COPD-Q was 0.796 (95% confidence interval, 0.707–0.788). A cutoff of 4 points resulted in a sensitivity of 71.0% and a specificity of 70.1%. The positive predictive value was 10.8%, and the negative predictive value was 97.9%. The crude odds ratio of the COPD-Q for AO was 5.8.

          Conclusion

          The five-item COPD-Q is a useful questionnaire for diagnosing persistent AO in a general Japanese population and is expected to be an effective first-stage screening tool for detecting COPD.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Diagnosis and management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a clinical practice guideline update from the American College of Physicians, American College of Chest Physicians, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society.

          This guideline is an official statement of the American College of Physicians (ACP), American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), American Thoracic Society (ATS), and European Respiratory Society (ERS). It represents an update of the 2007 ACP clinical practice guideline on diagnosis and management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is intended for clinicians who manage patients with COPD. This guideline addresses the value of history and physical examination for predicting airflow obstruction; the value of spirometry for screening or diagnosis of COPD; and COPD management strategies, specifically evaluation of various inhaled therapies (anticholinergics, long-acting β-agonists, and corticosteroids), pulmonary rehabilitation programs, and supplemental oxygen therapy. This guideline is based on a targeted literature update from March 2007 to December 2009 to evaluate the evidence and update the 2007 ACP clinical practice guideline on diagnosis and management of stable COPD. RECOMMENDATION 1: ACP, ACCP, ATS, and ERS recommend that spirometry should be obtained to diagnose airflow obstruction in patients with respiratory symptoms (Grade: strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence). Spirometry should not be used to screen for airflow obstruction in individuals without respiratory symptoms (Grade: strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence). RECOMMENDATION 2: For stable COPD patients with respiratory symptoms and FEV(1) between 60% and 80% predicted, ACP, ACCP, ATS, and ERS suggest that treatment with inhaled bronchodilators may be used (Grade: weak recommendation, low-quality evidence). RECOMMENDATION 3: For stable COPD patients with respiratory symptoms and FEV(1) 50% predicted. (Grade: weak recommendation, moderate-quality evidence). RECOMMENDATION 7: ACP, ACCP, ATS, and ERS recommend that clinicians should prescribe continuous oxygen therapy in patients with COPD who have severe resting hypoxemia (Pao(2) ≤55 mm Hg or Spo(2) ≤88%) (Grade: strong recommendation, moderate-quality evidence).
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            The clinical features of the overlap between COPD and asthma

            Background The coexistence of COPD and asthma is widely recognized but has not been well described. This study characterizes clinical features, spirometry, and chest CT scans of smoking subjects with both COPD and asthma. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study comparing subjects with COPD and asthma to subjects with COPD alone in the COPDGene Study. Results 119 (13%) of 915 subjects with COPD reported a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These subjects were younger (61.3 vs 64.7 years old, p = 0.0001) with lower lifetime smoking intensity (43.7 vs 55.1 pack years, p = 0.0001). More African-Americans reported a history of asthma (33.6% vs 15.6%, p < 0.0001). Subjects with COPD and asthma demonstrated worse disease-related quality of life, were more likely to have had a severe COPD exacerbation in the past year, and were more likely to experience frequent exacerbations (OR 3.55 [2.19, 5.75], p < 0.0001). Subjects with COPD and asthma demonstrated greater gas-trapping on chest CT. There were no differences in spirometry or CT measurements of emphysema or airway wall thickness. Conclusion Subjects with COPD and asthma represent a relevant clinical population, with worse health-related quality of life. They experience more frequent and severe respiratory exacerbations despite younger age and reduced lifetime smoking history. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00608764
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              Consensus document on the overlap phenotype COPD-asthma in COPD.

              Although asthma and COPD are different pathologies, many patients share characteristics from both entities. These cases can have different evolutions and responses to treatment. Nevertheless, the evidence available is limited, and it is necessary to evaluate whether they represent a differential phenotype and provide recommendations about diagnosis and treatment, in addition to identifying possible gaps in our understanding of asthma and COPD. A nation-wide consensus of experts in COPD in two stages: 1) during an initial meeting, the topics to be dealt with were established and a first draft of statements was elaborated with a structured "brainstorming" method; 2) consensus was reached with two rounds of e-mails, using a Likert-type scale. Consensus was reached about the existence of a differential clinical phenotype known as"Overlap Phenotype COPD-Asthma", whose diagnosis is made when 2 major criteria and 2 minor criteria are met. The major criteria include very positive bronchodilator test (increase in FEV(1) ≥ 15% and ≥ 400ml), eosinophilia in sputum and personal history of asthma. Minor criteria include high total IgE, personal history of atopy and positive bronchodilator test (increase in FEV(1) ≥ 12% and ≥ 200ml) on two or more occasions. The early use of individually-adjusted inhaled corticosteroids is recommended, and caution must be taken with their abrupt withdrawal. Meanwhile, in severe cases the use of triple therapy should be evaluated. Finally, there is an obvious lack of specific studies about the natural history and the treatment of these patients. It is necessary to expand our knowledge about this phenotype in order to establish adequate guidelines and recommendations for its diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2011 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2017
                15 May 2017
                : 12
                : 1469-1481
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima
                [2 ]Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka
                [3 ]Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University
                [4 ]Kagoshima Kouseiren Medical Health Care Center, Kagoshima
                [5 ]Hisayama Research Institute for Lifestyle Diseases
                [6 ]Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hiromasa Inoue, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520, Japan, Tel +81 99 275 6476, Fax +81 99 275 6482, Email inoue-pulm@ 123456umin.net
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                copd-12-1469
                10.2147/COPD.S130453
                5439935
                © 2017 Samukawa et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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