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      Long-Term Outcome of Paediatric Renal Transplantation: Follow-Up of 300 Children from 1973 to 2000

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          Background/Aim: To report our experience of paediatric renal transplantation at Great Ormond Street and Royal Free Hospitals since the inception of the programme. Methods: Retrospective review of the patient and transplant survival and influencing factors in the 300 children transplanted between 1973 and 2000. Results: 300 children had received a total of 354 transplants; 56 were living-related donations. The median age at transplantation was 10.3 (range 1.4–17.9) years. Forty-four percent had congenital structural abnormalities of the urinary tract. Forty-six children required a second and 8 a third transplant before transfer to an adult unit. The overall patient survival at 5, 10, and 20 years was 97, 94, and 72%, respectively. In the overall cohort, the donor type (deceased donor or living-related donor) did not affect mortality, nor did age at transplantation, but those transplanted before 5 years of age had a significantly shorter post-transplant survival time (p < 0.0001). Transplant survival (first transplant) for deceased and living-related donors was 66 and 87% at 5 years (p < 0.01), 51 and 54% at 10 years, and 36% at 20 years (deceased-donor transplants only). Although the overall transplant survival was inferior in children transplanted before 2 years of age (p < 0.03), in the most recent cohort (1990–2000), age did not affect the outcome. On multiple regression analysis, the only predictor of transplant survival was the era of transplantation (p < 0.001). The median final height was within the normal range for males and females; 7 patients received growth hormone after transplantation. Conclusions: The outlook for successful transplantation is improving, and in the last decade was unaffected by age at transplantation. The survival of living-related donor transplants is superior to deceased-donor transplants for the first 5 years. From the above data, we can predict that a 10-year-old child receiving a renal transplant in 2000 and on ciclosporin-based immunosuppression can expect a transplant half-life of 13.1 years from a living-related donor and one of 10.8 years from a deceased-donor transplant.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Mortality and causes of death of end-stage renal disease in children: a Dutch cohort study.

          To establish mortality rates, causes of death, and determinants of mortality in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), we performed a national long-term follow up study. Mortality rate was determined in all Dutch patients with onset of ESRD at ages 0 to 14 years in the period between 1972 and 1992. Causes of death and mortality determinants were investigated in all patients of this cohort who were born before 1979. Data were derived from the Dutch Registry for patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT), medical charts and National Health Database. Of all 381 patients 85 had died. The overall mortality rate (MR) was 1.57/100 patient-years, and the standardized mortality rate (SMR) was 31.0. The MR for patients 0 to 5 and 6 to 10 years old at onset of ESRD decreased from, respectively, 7.0 (range 0-14.9) to 3.9 (1.2-6.7) and 4.3 (1.1-7.5) to 1.6 (0.3-2.8) between the periods 1972-1981 and 1982-1992. The mortality hazard ratio of relatively long standing dialysis and of long standing hypertension were, respectively, 7.2 (4.4-11.8) and 3.1 (2.1-4.6), of cyclosporine-introduction in transplanted patients 0.3 (0.1-0.4). Overall cerebrovascular accidents (24%) and infections (21%) were the most common causes of death; after 10 years of RRT cardiac death (7/21) was most prevalent. Cardiovascular death was most prominent in dialysis as well as transplanted patients. Survival in children with ESRD has increased over the last 20 years, but the SMR remains high. Early transplantation and a more vigorous approach toward hypertension and infection may be mandatory in order to further reduce mortality.
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            Effect of growth hormone treatment on the adult height of children with chronic renal failure. German Study Group for Growth Hormone Treatment in Chronic Renal Failure.

            Growth hormone treatment stimulates growth in short children with chronic renal failure. However, the extent to which this therapy increases final adult height is not known. We followed 38 initially prepubertal children with chronic renal failure treated with growth hormone for a mean of 5.3 years until they reached their final adult height. The mean (+/-SD) age at the start of treatment was 10.4+/-2.2 years, the mean bone age was 7.1+/-2.3 years, and the mean height was 3.1+/-1.2 SD below normal. Fifty matched children with chronic renal failure who were not treated with growth hormone served as controls. The children treated with growth hormone had sustained catch-up growth, whereas the control children had progressive growth failure. The mean final height of the growth hormone-treated children was 165 cm for boys and 156 cm for girls. The mean final adult height of the growth hormone-treated children was 1.6+/-1.2 SD below normal, which was 1.4 SD above their standardized height at base line (P< 0.001). In contrast, the final height of the untreated children (2.1+/-1.2 SD below normal) was 0.6 SD below their standardized height at base line (P<0.001). Although prepubertal bone maturation was accelerated in growth hormone-treated children, treatment was not associated with a shortening of the pubertal growth spurt. The total height gain was positively associated with the initial target-height deficit and the duration of growth hormone therapy and was negatively associated with the percentage of the observation period spent receiving dialysis treatment. Long-term growth hormone treatment of children with chronic renal failure induces persistent catch-up growth, and the majority of patients achieve normal adult height.
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              Outcome and growth of infants with severe chronic renal failure.

              We aimed to assess the outcome and growth of infants with severe chronic renal failure (CRF). One hundred and one children presented between January 1, 1986, and December 12, 1998, with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of <20 mL/min/1.73 m2. The median (range) age at presentation was 0.3 (0 to 1.5) years, and follow-up was 7.6 (1.5 to 13) years. One- and five-year survival rates were 87 and 78%, respectively. The growth of the 81 children who survived over two years was evaluated. Eighty-one percent were enterally fed from age 0.7 (0 to 4.5) years for 1.9 (0.1 to 6.8) years. Forty-six percent had a gastrostomy, and 22% a Nissen fundoplication. Twenty-five were managed conservatively. Twenty were transplanted without dialysis at age 4 (1.7 to 8.5) years, and 36 were dialyzed at age 1.1 (0 to 9.8) before transplantation at age 2. 4 (1.3 to 10) years. The mean (SD) height standard deviation score increased from -2.16 (1.34) at 6 months (N = 63) to -1.97 (1.37) at 1 year (N = 75), -1.79 (1.29) at 2 years (N = 75), -1.33 (1.29) at 3 years (N = 68, P = 0.0006), -1.27 (1.04) at 5 years (N = 47, P = 0.0001), and -0.85 (0.82) at 10 years (N = 18, P = 0.001). The body mass index was in the normal range in the majority of patients. Mortality in infants with CRF occurs mainly in the first year of life. With early enteral feeding, the mean height standard deviation score is within the normal range from one year of age.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                January 2007
                29 November 2006
                : 105
                : 2
                : c68-c76
                aDepartment of Nephro-Urology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, London, and bDepartment of Transplantation, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK
                97601 Nephron Clin Pract 2007;105:c68–c76
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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