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      Four new species and three new records of benthic ctenophores (Family: Coeloplanidae) from the Red Sea

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      Marine Biodiversity

      Springer Nature

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          A molecular phylogenetic framework for the phylum Ctenophora using 18S rRNA genes.

          This paper presents the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of the phylum Ctenophora, by use of 18S ribosomal RNA sequences from most of the major taxa. The ctenophores form a distinct monophyletic group that, based on this gene phylogeny, is most closely related to the cnidarians. Our results suggest that the ancestral ctenophore was tentaculate and cydippid-like and that the presently recognized order Cydippida forms a polyphyletic group. The other ctenophore orders that we studied (Lobata, Beroida, and Platyctenida) are secondarily derived from cydippid-like ancestors, a conclusion that is also supported by developmental and morphological data. The very short evolutionary distances between characterized ctenophore 18S rRNA gene sequences suggests that extant ctenophores are derived from a recent common ancestor. This has important consequences for future studies and for an understanding of the evolution of the metazoans. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
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            Exploring the potential of small RNA subunit and ITS sequences for resolving phylogenetic relationships within the phylum Ctenophora.

            Ctenophores are a phylum of non-bilaterian marine (mostly planktonic) animals, characterised by several unique synapomorphies (e.g., comb rows, apical organ). Relationships between and within the nine recognised ctenophore orders are far from understood, notably due to a paucity of phylogenetically informative anatomical characters. Previous attempts to address ctenophore phylogeny using molecular data (18S rRNA) led to poorly resolved trees but demonstrated the paraphyly of the order Cydippida. Here we compiled an updated 18S rRNA data set, notably including a few newly sequenced species representing previously unsampled families (Lampeidae, Euryhamphaeidae), and we constructed an additional more rapidly evolving ITS1 + 5.8S rRNA + ITS2 alignment. These data sets were analysed separately and in combination under a probabilistic framework, using different methods (maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) and models (e.g., doublet model to accommodate secondary structure; data partitioning). An important lesson from our exploration of these datasets is that the fast-evolving internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions are useful markers for reconstructing high-level relationships within ctenophores. Our results confirm the paraphyly of the order Cydippida (and thus a "cydippid-like" ctenophore common ancestor) and suggest that the family Mertensiidae could be the sister group of all other ctenophores. The family Lampeidae (also part of the former "Cydippida") is probably the sister group of the order Platyctenida (benthic ctenophores). The order Beroida might not be monophyletic, due to the position of Beroe abyssicola outside of a clade grouping the other Beroe species and members of the "Cydippida" family Haeckeliidae. Many relationships (e.g. between Pleurobrachiidae, Beroida, Cestida, Lobata, Thalassocalycida) remain unresolved. Future progress in understanding ctenophore phylogeny will come from the use of additional rapidly evolving markers and improvement of taxonomic sampling.
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              Out of sight: aggregations of epizoic comb jellies underneath mushroom corals

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Marine Biodiversity
                Mar Biodiv
                Springer Nature
                1867-1616
                1867-1624
                March 2016
                July 19 2015
                March 2016
                : 46
                : 1
                : 261-279
                Article
                10.1007/s12526-015-0362-4
                © 2016

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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