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      COVID-19 Pandemic-Related Depression and Insomnia among Psychiatric Patients and the General Population


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          Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and limited access to healthcare professionals pose a serious risk of worsening mental conditions. This study was designed to examine the changes in symptoms of insomnia and depression during the pandemic as compared to before the pandemic, as well as the factors correlated with abovementioned mental state deterioration. Methods: The study was conducted from 1 April to 15 May 2020, on 212 psychiatric outpatients and 207 healthy controls. Participants completed a survey focused on symptoms during and prior to COVID-19 (the Beck Depression Inventory, the Athens Insomnia Scale). The following correlations were analyzed: demographics, social support, work status, income, and possible participants’ and their relatives’ COVID-19 diagnoses. Results: Insomnia and depression severity intensified during the pandemic in both groups and were associated with age, gender, education, employment, and financial status. No correlations between social support nor becoming sick with COVID-19 and insomnia or depression were observed. Maintaining work and enough money for one’s own needs were found to be significant protective factors of depression (OR 0.37 and 0.29, respectively). Conclusions: Exacerbation of insomnia and depression during the pandemic needs to be addressed. Economic crisis seems to influence mental state even more than COVID diagnosis among study subjects/relatives.

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          Most cited references43

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              The stressed synapse: the impact of stress and glucocorticoids on glutamate transmission.

              Mounting evidence suggests that acute and chronic stress, especially the stress-induced release of glucocorticoids, induces changes in glutamate neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, thereby influencing some aspects of cognitive processing. In addition, dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission is increasingly considered to be a core feature of stress-related mental illnesses. Recent studies have shed light on the mechanisms by which stress and glucocorticoids affect glutamate transmission, including effects on glutamate release, glutamate receptors and glutamate clearance and metabolism. This new understanding provides insights into normal brain functioning, as well as the pathophysiology and potential new treatments of stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                J Clin Med
                J Clin Med
                Journal of Clinical Medicine
                31 July 2021
                August 2021
                : 10
                : 15
                : 3425
                [1 ]Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Warsaw, Nowowiejska St. 27, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland; anna.klimkiewicz@ 123456wum.edu.pl
                [2 ]Psychomedic Clinic, Jastrzebowskiego St. 24, 02-783 Warsaw, Poland; adriannaschm@ 123456gmail.com
                [3 ]Nowowiejski Psychiatric Hospital, Nowowiejska St. 27, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland; joanna.j@ 123456neostrada.pl
                [4 ]Department of Psychology, SWPS University, Chodakowska St. 19/31, 03-815 Warsaw, Poland
                [5 ]Military Institute of Medicine, Szaserow St. 128, 04-141 Warsaw, Poland
                [6 ]Department of Science and Technology Transfer, Medical University of Warsaw, Żwirki i Wigury St. 61, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland; agata.jasinska@ 123456wum.edu.pl
                [7 ]Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Addiction Prevention and Treatment Team, Sobieskiego St. 9, 02-957 Warsaw, Poland; asilczuk@ 123456ipin.edu.pl
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: jklimkiewicz@ 123456wim.mil.pl ; Tel.: +48-607-344-905
                Author information
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 22 May 2021
                : 28 July 2021

                covid-19,insomnia,depression,social support,economic crisis,employment


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