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Total Cerebral Small-Vessel Disease Score is Associated with Mortality during Follow-Up after Acute Ischemic Stroke

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      Abstract

      Background and Purpose

      The recently developed total cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD) score might appropriately reflect the total burden or severity of CSVD. We investigated whether the total CSVD score is associated with long-term outcomes during follow-up in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

      Methods

      In total, 1,096 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging were enrolled. We calculated the total CSVD score for each patient after determining the burden of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), high-grade white-matter hyperintensities (HWHs), high-grade perivascular spaces (HPVSs), and asymptomatic lacunar infarctions (ALIs). We recorded the date and cause of death for all of the patients using data from the Korean National Statistical Office. We compared the long-term mortality rate with the total CSVD score using Cox proportional-hazards models.

      Results

      CMBs were found in 26.8% of the subjects (294/1,096), HWHs in 16.4% (180/1,096), HPVSs in 19.3% (211/1,096), and ALIs in 38.0% (416/1,096). After adjusting for age, sex, and variables that were significant at p<0.1 in the univariate analysis, the total CSVD score was independently associated with long-term death from all causes [hazard ratio (HR)=1.18 per point, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.07–1.30], ischemic stroke (HR=1.20 per point, 95% CI=1.01–1.42), and hemorrhagic stroke (HR=2.05 per point, 95% CI=1.30–3.22), but not with fatal cardiovascular events (HR=1.17 per point, 95% CI=0.82–1.67).

      Conclusions

      The total CSVD score is a potential imaging biomarker for predicting mortality during follow-up in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

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      Most cited references 33

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      Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. TOAST. Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment.

      The etiology of ischemic stroke affects prognosis, outcome, and management. Trials of therapies for patients with acute stroke should include measurements of responses as influenced by subtype of ischemic stroke. A system for categorization of subtypes of ischemic stroke mainly based on etiology has been developed for the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST). A classification of subtypes was prepared using clinical features and the results of ancillary diagnostic studies. "Possible" and "probable" diagnoses can be made based on the physician's certainty of diagnosis. The usefulness and interrater agreement of the classification were tested by two neurologists who had not participated in the writing of the criteria. The neurologists independently used the TOAST classification system in their bedside evaluation of 20 patients, first based only on clinical features and then after reviewing the results of diagnostic tests. The TOAST classification denotes five subtypes of ischemic stroke: 1) large-artery atherosclerosis, 2) cardioembolism, 3) small-vessel occlusion, 4) stroke of other determined etiology, and 5) stroke of undetermined etiology. Using this rating system, interphysician agreement was very high. The two physicians disagreed in only one patient. They were both able to reach a specific etiologic diagnosis in 11 patients, whereas the cause of stroke was not determined in nine. The TOAST stroke subtype classification system is easy to use and has good interobserver agreement. This system should allow investigators to report responses to treatment among important subgroups of patients with ischemic stroke. Clinical trials testing treatments for acute ischemic stroke should include similar methods to diagnose subtypes of stroke.
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        Neuroimaging standards for research into small vessel disease and its contribution to ageing and neurodegeneration

        Summary Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common accompaniment of ageing. Features seen on neuroimaging include recent small subcortical infarcts, lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, perivascular spaces, microbleeds, and brain atrophy. SVD can present as a stroke or cognitive decline, or can have few or no symptoms. SVD frequently coexists with neurodegenerative disease, and can exacerbate cognitive deficits, physical disabilities, and other symptoms of neurodegeneration. Terminology and definitions for imaging the features of SVD vary widely, which is also true for protocols for image acquisition and image analysis. This lack of consistency hampers progress in identifying the contribution of SVD to the pathophysiology and clinical features of common neurodegenerative diseases. We are an international working group from the Centres of Excellence in Neurodegeneration. We completed a structured process to develop definitions and imaging standards for markers and consequences of SVD. We aimed to achieve the following: first, to provide a common advisory about terms and definitions for features visible on MRI; second, to suggest minimum standards for image acquisition and analysis; third, to agree on standards for scientific reporting of changes related to SVD on neuroimaging; and fourth, to review emerging imaging methods for detection and quantification of preclinical manifestations of SVD. Our findings and recommendations apply to research studies, and can be used in the clinical setting to standardise image interpretation, acquisition, and reporting. This Position Paper summarises the main outcomes of this international effort to provide the STandards for ReportIng Vascular changes on nEuroimaging (STRIVE).
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          Cerebral small vessel disease: from pathogenesis and clinical characteristics to therapeutic challenges.

          The term cerebral small vessel disease refers to a group of pathological processes with various aetiologies that affect the small arteries, arterioles, venules, and capillaries of the brain. Age-related and hypertension-related small vessel diseases and cerebral amyloid angiopathy are the most common forms. The consequences of small vessel disease on the brain parenchyma are mainly lesions located in the subcortical structures such as lacunar infarcts, white matter lesions, large haemorrhages, and microbleeds. Because lacunar infarcts and white matter lesions are easily detected by neuroimaging, whereas small vessels are not, the term small vessel disease is frequently used to describe the parenchyma lesions rather than the underlying small vessel alterations. This classification, however, restricts the definition of small vessel disease to ischaemic lesions and might be misleading. Small vessel disease has an important role in cerebrovascular disease and is a leading cause of cognitive decline and functional loss in the elderly. Small vessel disease should be a main target for preventive and treatment strategies, but all types of presentation and complications should be taken into account. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [a ]Department of Neurology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
            [b ]Department of Neurology, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
            [c ]Department of Neurology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea.
            [d ]Department of Biostatistics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
            Author notes
            Correspondence: Young Dae Kim, MD, PhD. Department of Neurology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea. Tel +82-2-2228-1619, Fax +82-2-393-0705, neuro05@ 123456yuhs.ac
            Journal
            J Clin Neurol
            J Clin Neurol
            JCN
            Journal of Clinical Neurology (Seoul, Korea)
            Korean Neurological Association
            1738-6586
            2005-5013
            April 2017
            31 March 2017
            : 13
            : 2
            : 187-195
            28406586 5392462 10.3988/jcn.2017.13.2.187
            Copyright © 2017 Korean Neurological Association

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Funding
            Funded by: Ministry of Health, Welfare and Family Affairs, CrossRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003625;
            Award ID: HI08C2149
            Funded by: National Research Foundation of Korea, CrossRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003725;
            Award ID: 2015R1D1A1A01057934
            Categories
            Original Article

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