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      REBOA at Role 2 Afloat: resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta as a bridge to damage control surgery in the military maritime setting

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      Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps

      BMJ

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          Abstract

          Role 2 Afloat provides a damage control resuscitation and surgery facility in support of maritime, littoral and aviation operations. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) offers a rapid, effective solution to exsanguinating haemorrhage from pelvic and non-compressible torso haemorrhage. It should be considered when the patient presents in a peri-arrest state, if surgery is likely to be delayed, or where the single operating table is occupied by another case. This paper will outline the data in support of endovascular haemorrhage control, describe the technique and explore how REBOA could be delivered using equipment currently available in the Royal Navy Role 2 Afloat equipment module. Also discussed are potential future directions in endovascular resuscitation.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Death on the battlefield (2001-2011): implications for the future of combat casualty care.

          Critical evaluation of all aspects of combat casualty care, including mortality, with a special focus on the incidence and causes of potentially preventable deaths among US combat fatalities, is central to identifying gaps in knowledge, training, equipment, and execution of battlefield trauma care. The impetus to produce this analysis was to develop a comprehensive perspective of battlefield death, concentrating on deaths that occurred in the pre-medical treatment facility (pre-MTF) environment. The Armed Forces Medical Examiner Service Mortality Surveillance Division was used to identify Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom combat casualties from October 2001 to June 2011 who died from injury in the deployed environment. The autopsy records, perimortem records, photographs on file, and Mortality Trauma Registry of the Armed Forces Medical Examiner Service were used to compile mechanism of injury, cause of injury, medical intervention performed, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) on all lethal injuries. All data were used by the expert panel for the conduct of the potential for injury survivability assessment of this study. For the study interval between October 2001 and June 2011, 4,596 battlefield fatalities were reviewed and analyzed. The stratification of mortality demonstrated that 87.3% of all injury mortality occurred in the pre-MTF environment. Of the pre-MTF deaths, 75.7% (n = 3,040) were classified as nonsurvivable, and 24.3% (n = 976) were deemed potentially survivable (PS). The injury/physiologic focus of PS acute mortality was largely associated with hemorrhage (90.9%). The site of lethal hemorrhage was truncal (67.3%), followed by junctional (19.2%) and peripheral-extremity (13.5%) hemorrhage. Most battlefield casualties died of their injuries before ever reaching a surgeon. As most pre-MTF deaths are nonsurvivable, mitigation strategies to impact outcomes in this population need to be directed toward injury prevention. To significantly impact the outcome of combat casualties with PS injury, strategies must be developed to mitigate hemorrhage and optimize airway management or reduce the time interval between the battlefield point of injury and surgical intervention.Understanding battlefield mortality is a vital component of the military trauma system. Emphasis on this analysis should be placed on trauma system optimization, evidence-based improvements in Tactical Combat Casualty Care guidelines, data-driven research, and development to remediate gaps in care and relevant training and equipment enhancements that will increase the survivability of the fighting force.
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            The AAST prospective Aortic Occlusion for Resuscitation in Trauma and Acute Care Surgery (AORTA) registry: Data on contemporary utilization and outcomes of aortic occlusion and resuscitative balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA).

            Aortic occlusion (AO) for resuscitation in traumatic shock remains controversial. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) offers an emerging alternative.
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              Physiologic tolerance of descending thoracic aortic balloon occlusion in a swine model of hemorrhagic shock.

              Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is an emerging technique in trauma; however, the physiologic sequelae have not been well quantified. The objectives of this study were to characterize the burden of reperfusion and organ dysfunction of REBOA incurred during 30 or 90 min of class IV shock in a survivable porcine model of hemorrhage. After induction of shock, animals were randomized into 4 groups (n = 6): 30 min of shock alone (30-Shock) or with REBOA (30-REBOA) and 90 min of shock alone (90-Shock) or with REBOA (90-REBOA). Cardiovascular homeostasis was then restored with blood, fluid, and vasopressors for 48 h. Outcomes included mean central aortic pressure (MCAP), lactate concentration, organ dysfunction, histologic evaluation, and resuscitation requirements. Both REBOA groups had greater MCAPs throughout their shock phase compared to controls (P < .05) but accumulated a significantly greater serum lactate burden, which returned to control levels by 150 min in the 30-REBOA groups and 320 min in the 90-REBOA group. There was a greater level of renal dysfunction and evidence of liver necrosis seen in the 90-REBOA group compared to the 90-Shock group. There was no evidence of cerebral or spinal cord necrosis in any group. The 90-REBOA group required more fluid resuscitation than the 90-Shock group (P = .05). REBOA in shock improves MCAP and is associated with a greater lactate burden; however, this lactate burden returned to control levels within the study period. Ultimately, prolonged REBOA is a survivable and potentially life-saving intervention in the setting of hemorrhagic shock and cardiovascular collapse in the pig. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
                J R Army Med Corps
                BMJ
                0035-8665
                2052-0468
                May 09 2018
                May 2018
                May 2018
                December 20 2017
                : 164
                : 2
                : 72-76
                Article
                10.1136/jramc-2017-000874
                © 2017

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