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      A Pan-Canadian narrative review on the protocols for reopening dental services during the COVID-19 pandemic

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          Abstract

          The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is impacting the way in which dental services are provided. The aim of this narrative review was twofold: to summarize key areas from the Canadian protocols available for the reopening and restructuring of dental services across the country and to critically review these protocols based on existing evidence. A narrative review of the existing Canadian protocols, written in English and French, was undertaken between April 15 and July 13, 2020. The protocols were obtained by searching through regulatory bodies and websites from professional organizations, and from personal contacts through academic institutions and policy leaders. The data extraction form focused only on protocols related to dentistry, and the information was compiled by a hired assistant. Content was categorized via group discussions with the research team on eight areas: office management and procedures, patient and staff screening, treatment procedures, office layout, risk reduction, personal protective equipment, supporting information, and length and readability. Thirteen protocols were identified and offered substantial variation in the level of details provided. All but two protocols specified proper donning/doffing of personal protective equipment, while all protocols recommended daily monitoring of COVID-19 related signs and symptoms in staff and patients. They varied in terms of recommended mask types, eye and face shield protection, and head coverings. While all protocols aimed at restructuring emergency dental services, their recommendations were often not based on the published evidence. This narrative review summarized key areas from 13 provincial and territorial protocols in Canada to help oral health care providers plan the reopening of their services. The information conveyed across all documents was clear, but variance highlights the need for a coordinated effort to develop an evidence-based document for dental practitioners.

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          Most cited references 48

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          A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019

          Summary In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.)
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            Temporal profiles of viral load in posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples and serum antibody responses during infection by SARS-CoV-2: an observational cohort study

            Summary Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes severe community and nosocomial outbreaks. Comprehensive data for serial respiratory viral load and serum antibody responses from patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are not yet available. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs are usually obtained for serial viral load monitoring of respiratory infections but gathering these specimens can cause discomfort for patients and put health-care workers at risk. We aimed to ascertain the serial respiratory viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in posterior oropharyngeal (deep throat) saliva samples from patients with COVID-19, and serum antibody responses. Methods We did a cohort study at two hospitals in Hong Kong. We included patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. We obtained samples of blood, urine, posterior oropharyngeal saliva, and rectal swabs. Serial viral load was ascertained by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Antibody levels against the SARS-CoV-2 internal nucleoprotein (NP) and surface spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) were measured using EIA. Whole-genome sequencing was done to identify possible mutations arising during infection. Findings Between Jan 22, 2020, and Feb 12, 2020, 30 patients were screened for inclusion, of whom 23 were included (median age 62 years [range 37–75]). The median viral load in posterior oropharyngeal saliva or other respiratory specimens at presentation was 5·2 log10 copies per mL (IQR 4·1–7·0). Salivary viral load was highest during the first week after symptom onset and subsequently declined with time (slope −0·15, 95% CI −0·19 to −0·11; R 2=0·71). In one patient, viral RNA was detected 25 days after symptom onset. Older age was correlated with higher viral load (Spearman's ρ=0·48, 95% CI 0·074–0·75; p=0·020). For 16 patients with serum samples available 14 days or longer after symptom onset, rates of seropositivity were 94% for anti-NP IgG (n=15), 88% for anti-NP IgM (n=14), 100% for anti-RBD IgG (n=16), and 94% for anti-RBD IgM (n=15). Anti-SARS-CoV-2-NP or anti-SARS-CoV-2-RBD IgG levels correlated with virus neutralisation titre (R 2>0·9). No genome mutations were detected on serial samples. Interpretation Posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples are a non-invasive specimen more acceptable to patients and health-care workers. Unlike severe acute respiratory syndrome, patients with COVID-19 had the highest viral load near presentation, which could account for the fast-spreading nature of this epidemic. This finding emphasises the importance of stringent infection control and early use of potent antiviral agents, alone or in combination, for high-risk individuals. Serological assay can complement RT-qPCR for diagnosis. Funding Richard and Carol Yu, May Tam Mak Mei Yin, The Shaw Foundation Hong Kong, Michael Tong, Marina Lee, Government Consultancy Service, and Sanming Project of Medicine.
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              The Socio-Economic Implications of the Coronavirus and COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review

              The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in over 1.4 million confirmed cases and over 83,000 deaths globally. It has also sparked fears of an impending economic crisis and recession. Social distancing, self-isolation and travel restrictions forced a decrease in the workforce across all economic sectors and caused many jobs to be lost. Schools have closed down, and the need of commodities and manufactured products has decreased. In contrast, the need for medical supplies has significantly increased. The food sector has also seen a great demand due to panic-buying and stockpiling of food products. In response to this global outbreak, we summarise the socio-economic effects of COVID-19 on individual aspects of the world economy.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                brondani@dentistry.ubc.ca
                d.cua@alumni.ubc.ca
                tala.maragha@alumni.ubc.ca
                melody.shayanfar@alumni.ubc.ca
                kmmuju@dentistry.ubc.ca
                hsingchi.von.bergmann@ubc.ca
                falmeida@dentistry.ubc.ca
                jeannie.midmaindental@gmail.com
                lex.vides@vahs.life
                strathconahealth@vsb.bc.ca
                ldonnelly@dentistry.ubc.ca
                Journal
                BMC Oral Health
                BMC Oral Health
                BMC Oral Health
                BioMed Central (London )
                1472-6831
                2 December 2020
                2 December 2020
                2020
                : 20
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.17091.3e, ISNI 0000 0001 2288 9830, Department of Oral Health Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, , University of British Columbia, ; 116/2199 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, V6T 1Z3 Canada
                [2 ]GRID grid.17091.3e, ISNI 0000 0001 2288 9830, Department of Oral Biological and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, , University of British Columbia, ; Vancouver, Canada
                [3 ]GRID grid.17091.3e, ISNI 0000 0001 2288 9830, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Science, , University of British Columbia, ; Vancouver, Canada
                [4 ]MidMain Community Health Center, Vancouver, Canada
                [5 ]Vancouver Aboriginal Health Society, Vancouver, Canada
                [6 ]Strathcona Health Society, Vancouver, Canada
                Article
                1340
                10.1186/s12903-020-01340-y
                7708888
                33267811
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000233, Genome British Columbia;
                Award ID: COV092
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Faculty of Dentistry, University of British Columbia
                Award ID: 2020 Summer Student Award
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Dentistry

                oral health care, protocols, covid-19, sars-cov-2, narrative review, evidence-based, canada

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