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      Risk factors for parental psychopathology: a study in families with children or adolescents with psychopathology


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          The parents of children with psychopathology are at increased risk for psychiatric symptoms. To investigate which parents are mostly at risk, we assessed in a clinical sample of families with children with psychopathology, whether parental symptom scores can be predicted by offspring psychiatric diagnoses and other child, parent and family characteristics. Parental depressive, anxiety, avoidant personality, attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD), and antisocial personality symptoms were measured with the Adult Self Report in 1805 mothers and 1361 fathers of 1866 children with a psychiatric diagnosis as assessed in a child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinic. In a multivariate model, including all parental symptom scores as outcome variables, all offspring psychiatric diagnoses, offspring comorbidity and age, parental age, parental educational attainment, employment, and relationship status were simultaneously tested as predictors. Both 35.7% of mothers and 32.8% of fathers scored (sub)clinical for at least one symptom domain, mainly depressive symptoms, ADHD symptoms or, only in fathers, avoidant personality symptoms. Parental psychiatric symptoms were predicted by unemployment. Parental depressive and ADHD symptoms were further predicted by offspring depression and offspring ADHD, respectively, as well as by not living together with the other parent. Finally, parental avoidant personality symptoms were also predicted by offspring autism spectrum disorders. In families with children referred to child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinics, parental symptom scores are associated with adverse circumstances and with similar psychopathology in their offspring. This signifies, without implying causality, that some families are particularly vulnerable, with multiple family members affected and living in adverse circumstances.

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          Social determinants of mental health: a review of the evidence

          Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to present a non-systematic narrative review of the published evidence on the association between mental health and sociodemographic and economic factors at individual- and at area-level. Methods: A literature search of PubMed and Web of Science was carried out to identify studies published between 2004 and 2014 on the impact of sociodemographic and economic individual or contextual factors on psychiatric symptoms, mental disorders or suicide. The results and methodological factors were extracted from each study. Results Seventy-eight studies assessed associations between individual-level factors and mental health. The main individual factors shown to have a statistically significant independent association with worse mental health were low income, not living with a partner, lack of social support, female gender, low level of education, low income, low socioeconomic status, unemployment, financial strain, and perceived discrimination. Sixty-nine studies reported associations between area-level factors and mental health, namely neighbourhood socioeconomic conditions, social capital, geographical distribution and built environment, neighbourhood problems and ethnic composition. Conclusions Most of the 150 studies included reported associations between at least one sociodemographic or economic characteristic and mental health outcomes. There was large variability between studies concerning methodology, study populations, variables, and mental illness outcomes, making it difficult to draw more than some general qualitative conclusions. This review highlights the importance of social factors in the initiation and maintenance of mental illness and the need for political action and effective interventions to improve the conditions of everyday life in order to improve population's mental health.
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            Parenting Stress in Families of Children With ADHD

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              Affective disorder in the parents of a clinic sample of children with anxiety disorders.

              Family history studies in adults reveal strong familiality for the anxiety disorders with some specificity. The aim of the current study was to establish whether there was an elevated rate of anxiety disorders in the parents of children with anxiety disorders, and whether there was intergenerational specificity in the form of disorder. The mental state of a clinic sample of 85 children with anxiety disorder and their parents was systematically assessed, together with a comparison sample of 45 children with no current disorder and their parents. Compared to the rate of anxiety disorder amongst parents of comparison children, the rate of current anxiety disorder in mothers of anxious children was significantly raised, as was the lifetime rate of anxiety disorder for both mothers and fathers. The mothers of children with generalised anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia and separation anxiety disorder all had raised lifetime rates of the corresponding disorder, but also raised rates of others disorders. Only 60% of the fathers of the anxious children were assessed. Strong familiality of anxiety disorders was confirmed, especially between child and maternal anxiety disorder. All child anxiety disorders were associated with several forms of anxiety disorder in the mother. Some specificity in the form of anxiety disorder in the child and the mother was apparent for social phobia and separation anxiety disorder. The findings have implications for the management of child anxiety.

                Author and article information

                +31205983057 , l.w.wesseldijk@vu.nl
                Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
                Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry
                European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                11 April 2018
                11 April 2018
                : 27
                : 12
                : 1575-1584
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1754 9227, GRID grid.12380.38, Department of Biological Psychology, , VU University Amsterdam, ; Van Der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [2 ]Amsterdam Public Health Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [3 ]ISNI 000000040459992X, GRID grid.5645.2, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychology, , Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam/Sophia Children’s Hospital, ; Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                [4 ]ISNI 0000000084992262, GRID grid.7177.6, Research Institute of Child Development and Education, , University of Amsterdam, ; Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [5 ]UvA Minds, Academic Child and Parent Treatment Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [6 ]Neuroscience Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7689, GRID grid.59062.38, Division of Human Genetics, Department of Psychiatry and Medicine, Center for Children, Youth and Families, , University of Vermont, ; Burlington, USA
                [8 ]ISNI 0000000404654431, GRID grid.5650.6, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, , Academic Medical Center, ; Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [9 ]GRID grid.491096.3, De Bascule, Academic Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ; Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [10 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9320 7537, GRID grid.1003.2, Child Health Research Centre, , University of Queensland, ; Brisbane, Australia
                [11 ]Child and Youth Mental Health Services, Children’s Health Queensland Hospital and Health Service, Brisbane, Australia
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Funded by: the Netherlands Foundation for Mental Health (20096398), and the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development Grant: “Genetic influences on stability and change in psychopathology from childhood to young adulthood” (ZonMW 912-10-020), European Union Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) grant no. 602768. M. Bartels acknowledges her VU University Research Chair,, The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research: ‘‘Genetic and Family influences on Adolescent psychopathology and Wellness’’ (NWO 463-06-001); ‘‘A twin-sib study of adolescent wellness’’ (NWO-VENI 451-04-034). S.M. Bögels has been supported by NWO (VICI grant number 453-09-001).
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                © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                parental psychopathology,risk factors,childhood psychopathology,parent–offspring associations,family circumstances


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