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      Development of an IoT-Based Sleep Apnea Monitoring System for Healthcare Applications

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          Abstract

          Sleep is an essential and vital element of a person's life and health that helps to refresh and recharge the mind and body of a person. The quality of sleep is very important in every person's lifestyle, removing various diseases. Bad sleep is a big problem for a lot of people for a very long time. People suffering from various diseases are dealing with various sleeping disorders, commonly known as sleep apnea. A lot of people die during sleep because of uneven body changes in the body during sleep. On that note, a system to monitor sleep is very important. Most of the previous systems to monitor sleeping problems cannot deal with the real time sleeping problem, generating data after a certain period of sleep. Real-time monitoring of sleep is the key to detecting sleep apnea. To solve this problem, an Internet of Things- (IoT-) based real-time sleep apnea monitoring system has been developed. It will allow the user to measure different indexes of sleep and will notify them through a mobile application when anything odd occurs. The system contains various sensors to measure the electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate, pulse rate, skin response, and SpO2 of any person during the entire sleeping period. This research is very useful as it can measure the indexes of sleep without disturbing the person and can also show it in the mobile application simultaneously with the help of a Bluetooth module. The system has been developed in such a way that it can be used by every kind of person. Multiple analog sensors are used with the Arduino UNO to measure different parameters of the sleep factor. The system was examined and tested on different people's bodies. To analyze and detect sleep apnea in real-time, the system monitors several people during the sleeping period. The results are displayed on the monitor of the Arduino boards and in the mobile application. The analysis of the achieved data can detect sleep apnea in some of the people that the system monitored, and it can also display the reason why sleep apnea happens. This research also analyzes the people who are not in the danger of sleeping problems by the achieved data. This paper will help everyone learn about sleep apnea and will help people detect it and take the necessary steps to prevent it.

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          Most cited references23

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          Obstructive sleep apnoea.

          Obstructive sleep apnoea is a disease of increasing importance because of its neurocognitive and cardiovascular sequelae. Abnormalities in the anatomy of the pharynx, the physiology of the upper airway muscle dilator, and the stability of ventilatory control are important causes of repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnoea can be diagnosed on the basis of characteristic history (snoring, daytime sleepiness) and physical examination (increased neck circumference), but overnight polysomnography is needed to confirm presence of the disorder. Repetitive pharyngeal collapse causes recurrent arousals from sleep, leading to sleepiness and increased risk of motor vehicle and occupational accidents. The surges in hypoxaemia, hypercapnia, and catecholamine associated with this disorder have now been implicated in development of hypertension, but the association between obstructive sleep apnoea and myocardial infarction, stroke, and congestive heart failure is not proven. Continuous positive airway pressure, the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnoea, reduces sleepiness and improves hypertension.
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            Giles f. Filley lecture. Complex systems.

            Physiologic systems in health and disease display an extraordinary range of temporal behaviors and structural patterns that defy understanding based on linear constructs, reductionist strategies, and classical homeostasis. Application of concepts and computational tools derived from the contemporary study of complex systems, including nonlinear dynamics, fractals and "chaos theory," is having an increasing impact on biology and medicine. This presentation provides a brief overview of an emerging area of biomedical research, including recent applications to cardiopulmonary medicine and chronic obstructive lung disease.
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              Sleep apnea and heart failure.

              Sleep apnea is frequently observed in patients with heart failure (HF). In general, sleep apnea consists of two types: obstructive and central sleep apnea (OSA and CSA, respectively). OSA results from upper airway collapse, whereas CSA arises from reductions in central respiratory drive. In patients with OSA, blood pressure is frequently elevated as a result of sympathetic nervous system overactivation. The generation of exaggerated negative intrathoracic pressure during obstructive apneas further increases left ventricular (LV) afterload, reduces cardiac output, and may promote the progression of HF. Intermittent hypoxia and post-apneic reoxygenation cause vascular endothelial damage and possibly atherosclerosis and consequently coronary artery disease and ischemic cardiomyopathy. CSA is also characterized by apnea, hypoxia, and increased sympathetic nervous activity and, when present in HF, is associated with increased risk of death. In patients with HF, abolition of coexisting OSA by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves LV function and may contribute to the improvement of long-term outcomes. Although treatment options of CSA vary compared with OSA treatment, CPAP and other types of positive airway ventilation improve LV function and may be a promising adjunctive therapy for HF patients with CSA. Since HF remains one of the major causes of mortality in the industrialized countries, the significance of identifying and managing sleep apnea should be more emphasized to prevent the development or progression of HF.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Comput Math Methods Med
                Comput Math Methods Med
                cmmm
                Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
                Hindawi
                1748-670X
                1748-6718
                2021
                3 November 2021
                : 2021
                : 7152576
                Affiliations
                1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North South University, Bashundhara, Dhaka 1229, Bangladesh
                2Department of Information Technology, College of Computers and Information Technology, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Osamah Ibrahim Khalaf

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5919-8926
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8089-9789
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5138-3692
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6638-7039
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0779-8820
                Article
                10.1155/2021/7152576
                8580633
                34777567
                742f89ef-495d-4c04-84fe-3afe44b63d19
                Copyright © 2021 Abdur Rab Dhruba et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 23 September 2021
                : 9 October 2021
                : 16 October 2021
                Funding
                Funded by: Taif University
                Award ID: TURSP-2020/26
                Categories
                Research Article

                Applied mathematics
                Applied mathematics

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