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      An overview of the development of combined oral contraceptives containing estradiol: focus on estradiol valerate/dienogest

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          Abstract

          Natural estrogens such as estradiol (E 2) or its valerate ester (E 2V) offer an alternative to ethinyl estradiol (EE). E 2-containing combined oral contraceptives (COCs) have demonstrated sufficient ovulation inhibition and acceptable contraceptive efficacy. However, earlier formulations were generally associated with unacceptable bleeding profiles. Two E 2V-containing preparations have been approved to date for contraceptive use: E 2V/cypro-terone acetate (CPA) (Femilar®; only approved in Finland and only in women >40 years or women aged 35–40 years in whom a COC containing EE is not appropriate) and E 2V/dienogest (DNG; Qlaira®/Natazia®). The objective of the current review is to provide an overview of the development of COCs containing natural estrogen, highlighting past issues and challenges faced by earlier formulations, as well as the current status and future directions. The majority of information to date pertains to the development of E 2V/DNG.

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          Most cited references55

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          Pharmacology of estrogens and progestogens: influence of different routes of administration.

          H Kühl (2005)
          This review comprises the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of natural and synthetic estrogens and progestogens used in contraception and therapy, with special consideration of hormone replacement therapy. The paper describes the mechanisms of action, the relation between structure and hormonal activity, differences in hormonal pattern and potency, peculiarities in the properties of certain steroids, tissue-specific effects, and the metabolism of the available estrogens and progestogens. The influence of the route of administration on pharmacokinetics, hormonal activity and metabolism is presented, and the effects of oral and transdermal treatment with estrogens on tissues, clinical and serum parameters are compared. The effects of oral, transdermal (patch and gel), intranasal, sublingual, buccal, vaginal, subcutaneous and intramuscular administration of estrogens, as well as of oral, vaginal, transdermal, intranasal, buccal, intramuscular and intrauterine application of progestogens are discussed. The various types of progestogens, their receptor interaction, hormonal pattern and the hormonal activity of certain metabolites are described in detail. The structural formulae, serum concentrations, binding affinities to steroid receptors and serum binding globulins, and the relative potencies of the available estrogens and progestins are presented. Differences in the tissue-specific effects of the various compounds and regimens and their potential implications with the risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy are discussed.
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            The safety of a drospirenone-containing oral contraceptive: final results from the European Active Surveillance Study on oral contraceptives based on 142,475 women-years of observation.

            The study was conducted to compare risks of adverse cardiovascular and other events associated with the use of drospirenone (DRSP)-containing oral contraceptives (OCs) and other OCs. The European Active Surveillance study (EURAS) was a multinational, prospective, noninterventional cohort study of new users of DRSP, levonorgestrel (LNG) and other progestin-containing OCs. Semiannual follow-up was based on mailed questionnaires, with additional follow-up procedures when needed. Overall, 58,674 women were followed for 142,475 women-years of observation. Loss to follow-up was 2.4%. Serious adverse and fatal events were rare, and rate ratios were close to unity (1.0). Cox regression analysis of cardiovascular outcomes yielded hazard ratios for DRSP-containing vs. LNG-containing and other OCs of 1.0 and 0.8 (upper 95% confidence limits, 1.8 and 1.3) for venous, and 0.3 and 0.3 (upper 95% confidence limits, 1.2 and 1.5) for arterial thromboembolism, respectively. Risks of adverse cardiovascular and other serious events in users of a DRSP-containing OC are similar to those associated with the use of other OCs.
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              New progestagens for contraceptive use.

              The progestins have different pharmacologic properties depending upon the parent molecule, usually testosterone or progesterone (P), from which they are derived. Very small structural changes in the parent molecule may induce considerable differences in the activity of the derivative. In hormonal contraceptives, progestins represent the major agent designed for suppressing ovulation and are used in combination with estrogen (E) usually ethinyl-estradiol (EE). The development of new generations of progestins with improved selectivity profiles has been a great challenge. Steroidal and nonsteroidal progesterone receptor (PR) agonists have been synthesized as well, although the latter are still in a very early stage of development. Several new progestins, have been synthesized in the last two decades. These include dienogest (DNG), drospirenone (DRSP), Nestorone (NES), nomegestrol acetate (NOMAc) and trimegestone (TMG). These new progestins have been designed to have no androgenic or estrogenic actions and to be closer in activity to the physiological hormone P. DRSP differs from the classic progestins as it is derived from spirolactone. It is essentially an antimineralocorticoid steroid with no androgenic effect but a partial antiandrogenic effect. The antiovulatory potency of the different progestins varies. TMG and NES are the most potent progestins synthesized to date, followed by two of the older progestins, keto-desogestrel (keto-DSG) and levonorgestrel (LNG). The new molecules TMG, DRSP and DNG also have antiandrogenic activity. Striking differences exist regarding the side effects among the progestins and the combination with EE leads to other reactions related to the E itself and whether the associated progestin counterbalances, more or less, the estrogenic action. The 19-norprogesterone molecules and the new molecules DRSP and DNG are not androgenic and, therefore, have no negative effect on the lipid profile. Given their pharmacological properties, it is likely that the new progestins may have neutral effects on metabolic or vascular risks. However, this hypothesis must be confirmed in large clinical trials.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Gynecol Endocrinol
                Gynecol. Endocrinol
                dgye
                Gynecological Endocrinology
                Informa Healthcare
                0951-3590
                1473-0766
                May 2012
                02 April 2012
                : 28
                : 5
                : 400-408
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ospedale S. Chiara, Pisa, Italy
                [2 ]Centre de Ménopause, Hôpital Paule de Viguier, Toulouse, France
                [3 ]Universitätsspital Basel, Frauenklinik, Basel, Switzerland
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Franca Fruzzetti, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Clinic Azienda Ospedaliera S.Chiara, Via Roma 65, Pisa 66100, Italy. Tel.: +39 050 992 801; Fax: +39 050 553410. E-mail: ffruzzi@ 123456tin.it
                Article
                10.3109/09513590.2012.662547
                3399636
                22468839
                743c82a2-1ab5-4547-b41e-aa6f0c934773
                Copyright © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Supplemental Terms and Conditions for iOpenAccess articles published in Informa Healthcare journals , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                Categories
                Combined Oral Contraceptives

                Endocrinology & Diabetes
                estrogens,contraceptives,menstruation,oral,estradiol
                Endocrinology & Diabetes
                estrogens, contraceptives, menstruation, oral, estradiol

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