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      Recovering whole-body angular momentum and margin of stability after treadmill-induced perturbations during sloped walking in healthy young adults

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      Scientific Reports
      Nature Publishing Group UK
      Biomedical engineering, Motor control

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          Abstract

          Although humans are well-adapted to negotiating sloped terrain, balance recovery after a disturbance on slopes is poorly understood. This study investigated how slope affects recovery from unanticipated simulated trips and slips. Eighteen healthy young adults walked on a split-belt treadmill at 1.25 m/s and three slope angles (downhill: − 8°; level: 0°; uphill: + 8°), with slip- and trip-like perturbations applied randomly at heel-strike. We evaluated balance recovery using whole-body angular momentum (WBAM) and perturbation response (PR), for which larger PR values indicate greater deviation of the margin of stability from baseline, therefore, greater destabilisation after perturbation. Overall, trips were more destabilising than slips, producing larger PR and greater range and integral of WBAM across all tested slopes, most significantly in the sagittal plane. Contrary to expectation, sagittal-plane PR post-trip was greatest for level walking and smallest for downhill walking. Heightened vigilance during downhill walking may explain this finding. Recovery strategy in both frontal and sagittal planes was consistent across all slopes and perturbation types, characterized by a wider and shorter first recovery step, with trips requiring the greatest step adjustment. Our findings advance understanding of the robustness of human locomotion and may offer insights into fall prevention interventions.

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          Most cited references55

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          The condition for dynamic stability.

          The well-known condition for standing stability in static situations is that the vertical projection of the centre of mass (CoM) should be within the base of support (BoS). On the basis of a simple inverted pendulum model, an extension of this rule is proposed for dynamical situations: the position of (the vertical projection of) the CoM plus its velocity times a factor (square root l/g) should be within the BoS, l being leg length and g the acceleration of gravity. It is proposed to name this vector quantity 'extrapolated centre of mass position' (XcoM). The definition suggests as a measure of stability the 'margin of stability' b, the minimum distance from XcoM to the boundaries of the BoS. An alternative measure is the temporal stability margin tau, the time in which the boundary of the BoS would be reached without intervention. Some experimental data of subjects standing on one or two feet, flatfoot and tiptoe, are presented to give an idea of the usual ranges of these margins of stability. Example data on walking are also presented.
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            OpenSim: Simulating musculoskeletal dynamics and neuromuscular control to study human and animal movement

            Movement is fundamental to human and animal life, emerging through interaction of complex neural, muscular, and skeletal systems. Study of movement draws from and contributes to diverse fields, including biology, neuroscience, mechanics, and robotics. OpenSim unites methods from these fields to create fast and accurate simulations of movement, enabling two fundamental tasks. First, the software can calculate variables that are difficult to measure experimentally, such as the forces generated by muscles and the stretch and recoil of tendons during movement. Second, OpenSim can predict novel movements from models of motor control, such as kinematic adaptations of human gait during loaded or inclined walking. Changes in musculoskeletal dynamics following surgery or due to human–device interaction can also be simulated; these simulations have played a vital role in several applications, including the design of implantable mechanical devices to improve human grasping in individuals with paralysis. OpenSim is an extensible and user-friendly software package built on decades of knowledge about computational modeling and simulation of biomechanical systems. OpenSim’s design enables computational scientists to create new state-of-the-art software tools and empowers others to use these tools in research and clinical applications. OpenSim supports a large and growing community of biomechanics and rehabilitation researchers, facilitating exchange of models and simulations for reproducing and extending discoveries. Examples, tutorials, documentation, and an active user forum support this community. The OpenSim software is covered by the Apache License 2.0, which permits its use for any purpose including both nonprofit and commercial applications. The source code is freely and anonymously accessible on GitHub, where the community is welcomed to make contributions. Platform-specific installers of OpenSim include a GUI and are available on simtk.org.
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              Measurement of lower extremity kinematics during level walking.

              A simple external marker system and algorithms for computing lower extremity joint angle motion during level walking were developed and implemented on a computer-aided video motion analysis system (VICON). The concept of embedded axes and Euler rotation angles was used to define the three-dimensional joint angle motion based on a set of body surface markers. Gait analysis was performed on 40 normal young adults three times on three different test days at least 1 week apart using the marker system. Angular motion of the hip, knee, and ankle joints and of the pelvis were obtained throughout a gait cycle utilizing the three-dimensional trajectories of markers. The effect of uncertainties in defining the embedded axis on joint angles was demonstrated using sensitivity analysis. The errors in the estimation of joint angle motion were quantified with respect to the degree of error in the construction of embedded axes. The limitations of the model and the marker system in evaluating pathologic gait are discussed. The relatively small number of body surface markers used in the system render it easy to implement for use in routine clinical gait evaluations. Additionally, data presented in this paper should be a useful reference for describing and comparing pathologic gait patterns.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                pvlee@unimelb.edu.au
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                23 February 2024
                23 February 2024
                2024
                : 14
                : 4421
                Affiliations
                Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Melbourne, ( https://ror.org/01ej9dk98) Melbourne, VIC 3010 Australia
                Article
                54890
                10.1038/s41598-024-54890-4
                10884438
                38388724
                7444fb2d-b479-4ac0-a7e9-7003051643d6
                © The Author(s) 2024

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 2 November 2023
                : 18 February 2024
                Funding
                Funded by: Australian Research Council (ARC)
                Award ID: DP200103583
                Categories
                Article
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Nature Limited 2024

                Uncategorized
                biomedical engineering,motor control
                Uncategorized
                biomedical engineering, motor control

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