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      Andalusian Registry for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: Analysis of patients included Translated title: Registro Andaluz de la Poliposis Adenomatosa Familiar: Análisis de los pacientes incluidos

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          Abstract

          Objective: To evaluate the phenotype and genotype characteristic of patients included in the Andalusian Registry for familial adenomatous polyposis, the genotype/phenotype correlation and the impact of Registry in the frequency of colorectal cancer of registered. Material and methods: A descriptive study of 77 patients with FAP belonging to 33 families, included in a centralized database visited by the physicians of the hospitals taking part in the present study, on prior signing of confidentiality letters. All genetic studies were carried out in the Immunology Service of our institution. Results: We have included in our study 77 patients of 33 families; 31 probands with a mean age of 32 years (13-51) and 46 relatives at risk with a mean age of 21.8 years (6-55). Genetic study informed in 68/77 with positive result in 92.6%. Ten probands showed colorectal cancer (CRC) at the time of diagnosis (32.2%). Only two affected relatives showed CRC at diagnosis (4.3%), a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). Gastrointestinal involvement was observed in 30/61 (49%), desmoid tumors in 7/77 (9.1%) and congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium in 23/55 (65.7%). 86.7% of patients with this alteration showed mutations between codons 454 and 1019, with a statistically significant correlation ((p< 0.05). Conclusions: The registry has facilitated the genetic diagnosis for all affected families disregard their province of origin. It has also improved the screening of affected relatives and has made it possible to take preventive measures immediately, therefore diminishing the incidence of CRC at diagnosis in registered affected relatives. The correlation between congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium with some mutations is the only phenotypic-genotypic correlation with statistical significance.

          Translated abstract

          Objetivos: Valorar las características fenotípicas y genotípicas de los pacientes incluidos en el Registro Andaluz de la poliposis adenomatosa familiar, la relación genotipo/fenotipo y el impacto del Registro en la frecuencia de cáncer colorrectal de los familiares registrados. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo de 77 pacientes con PAF, pertenecientes a 33 familias, incluidos en una base de datos centralizada a la que tienen acceso los responsables de los hospitales participantes, previa firma de cartas de confidencialidad. Todos los estudios genéticos se realizan en el Servicio de Inmunología de nuestro Hospital. Resultados: 77 pacientes registrados (50,6% varones): 31 probandos, edad media: 32 años (13-51) y 46 familiares afectos, edad media 21,8 años (6-55). Estudio genético informado en 68/77 con resultado positivo en 92,6%. Cáncer colorrectal al diagnóstico en diez probandos (32,2%) y 2 familiares afectos (4,3%), diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p < 0,05). Se observó afectación de tramos altos en 30/61 (49%), tumor desmoides en 7/77 (9,1%) e hipertrofia del epitelio pigmentario de la retina en 23/35 (65,7%). El 86,7% de los pacientes con esta alteración mostraron mutaciones entre los codones 454 y 1.019, relación estadísticamente significativa (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: El Registro Andaluz ha permitido ofrecer el diagnóstico genético en todas las familias afectas independientemente de su provincia de origen, mejorar el cribado, iniciar medidas preventivas precozmente y disminuir la frecuencia de cáncer colorrectal al diagnóstico en los familiares afectos registrados. La relación de la hipertrofia congénita del epitelio pigmentario de la retina con determinadas mutaciones es la única relación feno-genotípica con significación estadística

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          Most cited references 44

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          Correlations between mutation site in APC and phenotype of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP): a review of the literature.

          Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene cause familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Disease severity and the presence of extracolonic manifestations seem to be correlated with the location of the mutation on the APC gene. In this review, large studies describing genotype-phenotype correlations in FAP were evaluated and categorized. Attenuated FAP (AFAP, 1000 adenomas) is found in patients with mutations between codons 1250 and 1464. Mutations in the remainder of the APC gene cause an intermediate phenotype (hundred to thousands of adenomas). Congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) and desmoid tumours are associated with mutations between codons 311 and 1444 and after codon 1444, respectively. No consistent correlations were found for upper gastrointestinal tumours. Genotype-phenotype correlations in FAP will be useful in decisions concerning screening and surgical management of FAP.
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            Mortality in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

            The authors identified 132 patients who died with a documented diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). A review of the medical records, autopsy reports, and in-depth discussion with local physicians and well-informed family members was performed. It was impossible, even after the review, to ascertain the exact cause of death in 22 patients. In the remaining patients, the cause of death was as follows: metastatic colorectal carcinoma, 64 patients (58.2 percent), (colon, 49 [44.5 percent], rectal, 15 [13.6 percent]); desmoid tumors, 12 (10.9 percent); periampullary carcinoma, 9 (8.2 percent); brain tumors, 8 (7.3 percent); perioperative mortalities, 5 (4.5 percent); adrenal carcinoma, 1 (0.9 percent); and abdominal carcinomatosis, 1 (0.9 percent). Ten patients died of causes not related to FAP. The major causes of death in 36 patients who underwent prophylactic colectomy were desmoid tumor and periampullary malignancy. This finding underscores the importance of lifelong surveillance and periodic endoscopic evaluation in patients with FAP.
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              Can APC mutation analysis contribute to therapeutic decisions in familial adenomatous polyposis? Experience from 680 FAP families.

              In familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), correlations between site of mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene and severity of colonic polyposis or extracolonic manifestations are well known. While mutation analysis is important for predictive diagnosis in persons at risk, its relevance for clinical management of individual patients is open to question. We examined 680 unrelated FAP families for germline mutations in the APC gene. Clinical information was obtained from 1256 patients. APC mutations were detected in 48% (327/680) of families. Age at diagnosis of FAP based on bowel symptoms and age at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in untreated patients were used as indicators of the severity of the natural course of the disease. A germline mutation was detected in 230 of 404 patients who were diagnosed after onset of bowel symptoms (rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, diarrhoea). When these patients were grouped according to the different sites of mutations, mean values for age at onset of disease differed significantly: patients carrying APC mutations at codon 1309 showed a disease onset 10 years earlier (mean age 20 years) compared with patients with mutations between codons 168 and 1580 (except codon 1309) (mean age 30 years), whereas patients with mutations at the 5' end of codon 168 or the 3' end of codon 1580 were diagnosed at a mean age of 52 years. Within each group of patients however large phenotypic variation was observed, even among patients with identical germline mutations. A higher incidence of desmoids was found in patients with mutations between codons 1445 and 1580 compared with mutations at other sites, while no correlation between site of mutation and presence of duodenal adenomas was observed. As age at manifestation and course of the disease may be rather variable, even in carriers of identical germline mutations, therapeutic decisions should be based on colonoscopic findings in individual patients rather than on the site of mutation. However, in patients with mutations within codons 1445-1580, it may be advisable to postpone elective colectomy because desmoids may arise through surgical intervention.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                diges
                Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
                Rev. esp. enferm. dig.
                Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva (Madrid, Madrid, Spain )
                1130-0108
                November 2010
                : 102
                : 11
                : 653-657
                Affiliations
                Jerez de la Frontera orgnameJerez de la Frontera Hospital orgdiv1Department of Gastroenterology Spain
                orgnameVirgen del Rocío University Hospital orgdiv1Department of Gastroenterology
                Córdoba orgnameReina Sofía University Hospital orgdiv1Department of Gastroenterology Spain
                Seville orgnameVirgen del Rocío University Hospital orgdiv1Department of Immunology Spain
                Article
                S1130-01082010001100006
                10.4321/s1130-01082010001100006

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 International License.

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