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      Recovering Genomics Clusters of Secondary Metabolites from Lakes Using Genome-Resolved Metagenomics


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          Metagenomic approaches became increasingly popular in the past decades due to decreasing costs of DNA sequencing and bioinformatics development. So far, however, the recovery of long genes coding for secondary metabolites still represents a big challenge. Often, the quality of metagenome assemblies is poor, especially in environments with a high microbial diversity where sequence coverage is low and complexity of natural communities high. Recently, new and improved algorithms for binning environmental reads and contigs have been developed to overcome such limitations. Some of these algorithms use a similarity detection approach to classify the obtained reads into taxonomical units and to assemble draft genomes. This approach, however, is quite limited since it can classify exclusively sequences similar to those available (and well classified) in the databases. In this work, we used draft genomes from Lake Stechlin, north-eastern Germany, recovered by MetaBat, an efficient binning tool that integrates empirical probabilistic distances of genome abundance, and tetranucleotide frequency for accurate metagenome binning. These genomes were screened for secondary metabolism genes, such as polyketide synthases (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS), using the Anti-SMASH and NAPDOS workflows. With this approach we were able to identify 243 secondary metabolite clusters from 121 genomes recovered from our lake samples. A total of 18 NRPS, 19 PKS, and 3 hybrid PKS/NRPS clusters were found. In addition, it was possible to predict the partial structure of several secondary metabolite clusters allowing for taxonomical classifications and phylogenetic inferences. Our approach revealed a high potential to recover and study secondary metabolites genes from any aquatic ecosystem.

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          The chalcone synthase superfamily of type III polyketide synthases.

          This review covers the functionally diverse type III polyketide synthase (PKS) superfamily of plant and bacterial biosynthetic enzymes. from the discovery of chalcone synthase (CHS) in the 1970s through the end of 2001. A broader perspective is achieved by a comparison of these CHS-like enzymes to mechanistically and evolutionarily related families of enzymes, including the type I and type II PKSs, as well as the thiolases and beta-ketoacyl synthases of fatty acid metabolism. As CHS is both the most frequently occurring and best studied type III PKS, this enzyme's structure and mechanism is examined in detail. The in vivo functions and biological activities of several classes of plant natural products derived from chalcones are also discussed. Evolutionary mechanisms of type III PKS divergence are considered, as are the biological functions and activities of each of the known and functionally divergent type III PKS enzymc families (currently twelve in plants and three in bacteria). A major focus of this review is the integration of information from genetic and biochemical studies with the unique insights gained from protein X-ray crystallography and homology modeling. This structural approach has generated a number of new predictions regarding both the importance and mechanistic role of various amino acid substitutions observed among functionally diverse type III PKS enzymes.
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            Antibacterial activities of bacteriocins: application in foods and pharmaceuticals

            Bacteriocins are a kind of ribosomal synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, which can kill or inhibit bacterial strains closely-related or non-related to produced bacteria, but will not harm the bacteria themselves by specific immunity proteins. Bacteriocins become one of the weapons against microorganisms due to the specific characteristics of large diversity of structure and function, natural resource, and being stable to heat. Many recent studies have purified and identified bacteriocins for application in food technology, which aims to extend food preservation time, treat pathogen disease and cancer therapy, and maintain human health. Therefore, bacteriocins may become a potential drug candidate for replacing antibiotics in order to treat multiple drugs resistance pathogens in the future. This review article summarizes different types of bacteriocins from bacteria. The latter half of this review focuses on the potential applications in food science and pharmaceutical industry.
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              Terpene synthases are widely distributed in bacteria.

              Odoriferous terpene metabolites of bacterial origin have been known for many years. In genome-sequenced Streptomycetaceae microorganisms, the vast majority produces the degraded sesquiterpene alcohol geosmin. Two minor groups of bacteria do not produce geosmin, with one of these groups instead producing other sesquiterpene alcohols, whereas members of the remaining group do not produce any detectable terpenoid metabolites. Because bacterial terpene synthases typically show no significant overall sequence similarity to any other known fungal or plant terpene synthases and usually exhibit relatively low levels of mutual sequence similarity with other bacterial synthases, simple correlation of protein sequence data with the structure of the cyclized terpene product has been precluded. We have previously described a powerful search method based on the use of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and protein families database (Pfam) search that has allowed the discovery of monoterpene synthases of bacterial origin. Using an enhanced set of HMM parameters generated using a training set of 140 previously identified bacterial terpene synthase sequences, a Pfam search of 8,759,463 predicted bacterial proteins from public databases and in-house draft genome data has now revealed 262 presumptive terpene synthases. The biochemical function of a considerable number of these presumptive terpene synthase genes could be determined by expression in a specially engineered heterologous Streptomyces host and spectroscopic identification of the resulting terpene products. In addition to a wide variety of terpenes that had been previously reported from fungal or plant sources, we have isolated and determined the complete structures of 13 previously unidentified cyclic sesquiterpenes and diterpenes.

                Author and article information

                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                20 February 2018
                : 9
                : 251
                [1] 1Bioinformatics Core Facility, Max Plank Institute for Biology of Ageing , Köln, Germany
                [2] 2Experimental Limnology, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries , Stechlin, Germany
                [3] 3Berlin Center for Genomics in Biodiversity Research , Berlin, Germany
                [4] 4Computational and Systems Biology Laboratory, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Fiocruz , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
                [5] 5Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, Potsdam University , Potsdam, Germany
                Author notes

                Edited by: Diana Elizabeth Marco, National Scientific Council (CONICET), Argentina

                Reviewed by: Hans Uwe Dahms, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan; Steven Singer, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), United States

                *Correspondence: Rafael R. C. Cuadrat rafaelcuadrat@ 123456gmail.com

                This article was submitted to Aquatic Microbiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Copyright © 2018 Cuadrat, Ionescu, Dávila and Grossart.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 24 October 2017
                : 31 January 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 88, Pages: 13, Words: 9153
                Funded by: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft 10.13039/501100001659
                Award ID: GR1540/21-1
                Award ID: GR1540/28-1
                Original Research

                Microbiology & Virology
                metagenomics 2.0,pks,nrps,freshwater,environmental genomics
                Microbiology & Virology
                metagenomics 2.0, pks, nrps, freshwater, environmental genomics


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