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      Transcript expression plasticity as a response to alternative larval host plants in the speciation process of corn and rice strains of Spodoptera frugiperda

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          Abstract

          Background

          Our main purpose was to evaluate the expression of plastic and evolved genes involved in ecological speciation in the noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm (FAW); and to demonstrate how host plants might influence lineage differentiation in this polyphagous insect. FAW is an important pest of several crops worldwide, and it is differentiated into host plant-related strains, corn (CS) and rice strains (RS). RNA-Seq and transcriptome characterization were applied to evaluate unbiased genetic expression differences in larvae from the two strains, fed on primary (corn) and alternative (rice) host plants. We consider that genes that are differently regulated by the same FAW strain, as a response to different hosts, are “plastic”. Otherwise, differences in gene expression between the two strains fed on the same host are considered constitutive differences.

          Results

          Individual performance parameters (larval and pupal weight) varied among conditions (strains vs. hosts). A total of 3657 contigs was related to plastic response, and 2395 contigs were differentially regulated in the two strains feeding on preferential and alternative hosts (constitutive contigs). Three molecular functions were present in all comparisons, both down- and up-regulated: oxidoreductase activity, metal-ion binding, and hydrolase activity.

          Conclusions

          Metabolization of foreign chemicals is among the key functions involved in the phenotypic variation of FAW strains. From an agricultural perspective, high plasticity in families of detoxifying genes indicates the capacity for a rapid response to control compounds such as insecticides.

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          Most cited references53

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          Phenotypic plasticity's impacts on diversification and speciation.

          Phenotypic plasticity (the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple phenotypes in response to variation in the environment) is commonplace. Yet its evolutionary significance remains controversial, especially in regard to whether and how it impacts diversification and speciation. Here, we review recent theory on how plasticity promotes: (i) the origin of novel phenotypes, (ii) divergence among populations and species, (iii) the formation of new species and (iv) adaptive radiation. We also discuss the latest empirical support for each of these evolutionary pathways to diversification and identify potentially profitable areas for future research. Generally, phenotypic plasticity can play a largely underappreciated role in driving diversification and speciation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            The genetic theory of adaptation: a brief history.

            Theoretical studies of adaptation have exploded over the past decade. This work has been inspired by recent, surprising findings in the experimental study of adaptation. For example, morphological evolution sometimes involves a modest number of genetic changes, with some individual changes having a large effect on the phenotype or fitness. Here I survey the history of adaptation theory, focusing on the rise and fall of various views over the past century and the reasons for the slow development of a mature theory of adaptation. I also discuss the challenges that face contemporary theories of adaptation.
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              Adaptation genomics: the next generation.

              Understanding the genetics of how organisms adapt to changing environments is a fundamental topic in modern evolutionary ecology. The field is currently progressing rapidly because of advances in genomics technologies, especially DNA sequencing. The aim of this review is to first briefly summarise how next generation sequencing (NGS) has transformed our ability to identify the genes underpinning adaptation. We then demonstrate how the application of these genomic tools to ecological model species means that we can start addressing some of the questions that have puzzled ecological geneticists for decades such as: How many genes are involved in adaptation? What types of genetic variation are responsible for adaptation? Does adaptation utilise pre-existing genetic variation or does it require new mutations to arise following an environmental change? Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                55-19-35211138 , klsilva@gmail.com
                rjhorikoshi@gmail.com
                dbernardi2004@yahoo.com.br
                celso.omoto@usp.br
                figueira@cena.usp.br
                brandaom@unicamp.br
                Journal
                BMC Genomics
                BMC Genomics
                BMC Genomics
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2164
                16 October 2017
                16 October 2017
                2017
                : 18
                : 792
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0722, GRID grid.11899.38, Laboratório de Melhoramento de Plantas, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de São Paulo, Campus “Luiz de Queiroz”, ; Av. Centenário, 303, Piracicaba, SP 13400-970 Brazil
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0723 2494, GRID grid.411087.b, Present address: Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genética, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, ; Av. Cândido Rondon, 400, Campinas, SP 13083-875 Brazil
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0722, GRID grid.11899.38, Programa de Pós-graduação em Entomologia, Departamento de Entomologia e Acarologia, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, Universidade de São Paulo, ; Av. Pádua Dias, 11, Piracicaba, SP 13418-900 Brazil
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0722, GRID grid.11899.38, Departamento de Entomologia e Acarologia, , Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, Universidade de São Paulo, ; Av. Pádua Dias, 11, Piracicaba, SP 13418-900 Brazil
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0723 2494, GRID grid.411087.b, Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genética, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, ; Av. Cândido Rondon, 400, Campinas, SP 13083-875 Brazil
                Article
                4170
                10.1186/s12864-017-4170-z
                5644112
                29037161
                744d10ef-916f-4cd7-ac05-dbb36d99817c
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 1 February 2017
                : 5 October 2017
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001807, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo;
                Award ID: 2012/16266
                Funded by: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (BR)
                Award ID: 2011/00417-3
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Genetics
                digestive enzyme,ecological speciation,fall armyworm,p450,transcriptome
                Genetics
                digestive enzyme, ecological speciation, fall armyworm, p450, transcriptome

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