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      Assessing Insulin Resistance: Application of a Fasting Glucose to Insulin Ratio in Growth Hormone-Treated Children

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          Abstract

          Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore simple measures of IR have been proposed to screen the at-risk patient. A fasting serum glucose (mg/dl) to plasma insulin (µU/ml) ratio (FGIR) of <7 was recently suggested as a screening tool for IR in certain pediatric patients. Methods: To determine the utility of simple indicators of IR, the FGIR of <7 was applied to a group of patients with established risk for IR. The study group was comprised of non-growth hormone (GH)-deficient patients with Turner syndrome (TS, n = 92) and idiopathic short stature (ISS, n = 73) receiving GH. The occurrence of a FGIR of <7 in these cohorts was compared to data from previous publications. Results/Conclusions: The application of a FGIR of <7 confirmed a rise in IR with GH therapy in both groups as well as a higher occurrence in the TS group, rising from 22 to 48% between 12 and 24 months of GH therapy. We conclude that simple measures of IR such as the FGIR may be useful in screening and following patients at risk for IR.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Insulin resistance and insulin secretory dysfunction as precursors of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Prospective studies of Pima Indians.

          The relative roles of obesity, insulin resistance, insulin secretory dysfunction, and excess hepatic glucose production in the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are controversial. We conducted a prospective study to determine which of these factors predicted the development of the disease in a group of Pima Indians. A body-composition assessment, oral and intravenous glucose-tolerance tests, and a hyperinsulinemic--euglycemic clamp study were performed in 200 non-diabetic Pima Indians (87 women and 113 men; mean [+/- SD] age, 26 +/- 6 years). The subjects were followed yearly thereafter for an average of 5.3 years. Diabetes developed in 38 subjects during follow-up. Obesity, insulin resistance (independent of obesity), and low acute plasma insulin response to intravenous glucose (with the degree of obesity and insulin resistance taken into account) were predictors of NIDDM: The six-year cumulative incidence of NIDDM was 39 percent in persons with values below the median for both insulin action and acute insulin response, 27 percent in those with values below the median for insulin action but above that for acute insulin response, 13 percent in those with values above the median for insulin action and below that for acute insulin response, and 0 in those with values originally above the median for both characteristics. Insulin resistance is a major risk factor for the development of NIDDM: A low acute insulin response to glucose is an additional but weaker risk factor.
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            Turner's syndrome.

             M Ranke,  P Saenger (2001)
            Before chromosomal analysis became available, the diagnosis of Turner's syndrome was based on the characteristics independently described by Otto Ullrich and Henry Turner, such as short stature, gonadal dysgenesis, typical, visible dysmorphic stigmata, and abnormalities in organs, which present in individuals with a female phenotype. Today, Turner's syndrome or Ullrich-Turner's syndrome may be defined as the combination of characteristic physical features and complete or part absence of one of the X chromosomes, frequently accompanied by cell-line mosaicism. The increasing interest in Turner's syndrome over the past two decades has been motivated both by the quest for a model by which the multi-faceted features of this disorder can be understood, and the endeavour to provide life-long support to the patient. New developments in research allow patients with Turner's syndrome to have multidisciplinary care.
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              Comparison of Simple Measures of Insulin Sensitivity in Young Girls with Premature Adrenarche: The Fasting Glucose to Insulin Ratio May Be a Simple and Useful Measure

               M. Silfen (2001)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2002
                2002
                29 April 2002
                : 57
                : 1-2
                : 37-42
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Pediatric Endocrinology, Children’s Hospital at Montefiore, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, N.Y., and bGenentech, Department of Medical Affairs, South San Francisco, Calif., USA
                Article
                57945 Horm Res 2002;57:37–42
                10.1159/000057945
                12006718
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 38, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Paper

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