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      The effect of environmental factors on the differential expression of miRNAs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a pilot clinical study

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          Abstract

          Objective

          The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of environmental factors on the differential expression of microRNAs in the peripheral blood of migratory and local patients in northern People’s Republic of China and on clinical symptoms of local patients in northern People’s Republic of China with COPD.

          Methods

          A total of 118 patients in the northern region and 8 migratory patients were enrolled in this prospective study. We collected general information. Blood samples were collected from 9 patients in the Beijing group, from 8 patients in the migratory group and from 9 healthy control subjects. After extracting the total RNA from these 3 groups, serum miRNA was identified by Solexa sequencing. We collected COPD assessment test (CAT) and Modified British Medical Research Council (mMRC) scores at different levels of air pollution and also collected the number of exacerbations over the year prior to the baseline and in the year preceding the follow-up.

          Results

          In total 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed. When air quality index (AQI) >100, the CAT and mMRC scores at baseline were significantly higher than those when the AQI ≤100 ( P<0.001). When AQI >100, the follow-up CAT and mMRC scores were significantly higher than those when AQI ≤100 ( P<0.001). Follow-up mMRC scores were significantly higher than baseline scores ( P=0.04). When AQI ≤100, the baseline CAT score of the group with fewer symptoms was 6.50 (4.00–8.75). However, when AQI >100, the baseline CAT score of this fewer symptoms group was 10.00 (6.25–12.00). The median CAT score was close to 10. When AQI ≤100, the follow-up CAT score of the fewer symptoms group was 8.00 (4.25–12.00). However, when AQI >100, the follow-up CAT score of the fewer symptoms group was 9.50 (6.00–16.75). The median CAT score was close to 10.

          Conclusion

          Environmental factors may cause differential expression of miRNAs in the peripheral blood of migratory and local patients in northern People’s Republic of China. Air pollution may aggravate clinical symptoms of patients with COPD.

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          Most cited references 22

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          To review the concept of proinflammatory cytokines. Review of published literature. Academic (university hospital). Cytokines are regulators of host responses to infection, immune responses, inflammation, and trauma. Some cytokines act to make disease worse (proinflammatory), whereas others serve to reduce inflammation and promote healing (anti-inflammatory). Attention also has focused on blocking cytokines, which are harmful to the host, particularly during overwhelming infection. Interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are proinflammatory cytokines, and when they are administered to humans, they produce fever, inflammation, tissue destruction, and, in some cases, shock and death. Reducing the biological activities of IL-1 and TNF is accomplished by several different, but highly specific, strategies, which involve neutralizing antibodies, soluble receptors, receptor antagonist, and inhibitors of proteases that convert inactive precursors to active, mature molecules. Blocking IL-1 or TNF has been highly successful in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, or graft-vs-host disease but distinctly has not been successful in humans with sepsis. Agents such as TNF-neutralizing antibodies, soluble TNF receptors, and IL-1 receptor antagonist have been infused into > 10,000 patients in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Although there has been a highly consistent small increase (2 to 3%) in 28-day survival rates with anticytokine therapy, the effect has not been statistically significant. Anticytokine therapy should be able to "rescue" the patient whose condition continues to deteriorate in the face of considerable support efforts. Unfortunately, it remains difficult to identify those patients who would benefit from anticytokine therapy for septic shock.
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            Anti-inflammatory cytokines.

             V DePalo,  S Opal (2000)
            The anti-inflammatory cytokines are a series of immunoregulatory molecules that control the proinflammatory cytokine response. Cytokines act in concert with specific cytokine inhibitors and soluble cytokine receptors to regulate the human immune response. Their physiologic role in inflammation and pathologic role in systemic inflammatory states are increasingly recognized. Major anti-inflammatory cytokines include interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-11, and IL-13. Specific cytokine receptors for IL-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-18 also function as proinflammatory cytokine inhibitors. The nature of anti-inflammatory cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors is the focus of this review. The current and future therapeutic uses of these anti-inflammatory cytokines are also reviewed.
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              COPD exacerbations .1: Epidemiology.

              The epidemiology of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is reviewed with particular reference to the definition, frequency, time course, natural history and seasonality, and their relationship with decline in lung function, disease severity and mortality. The importance of distinguishing between recurrent and relapsed exacerbations is discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2018
                28 February 2018
                : 13
                : 741-751
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Logistic University of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Li-Xin Xie, Department of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 139 1125 2807, Email xielx301@ 123456126.com
                Article
                copd-13-741
                10.2147/COPD.S156865
                5836692
                © 2018 Liu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                copd, mirna, environment, cat score, mmrc

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