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      Glioblastoma multiforme: The terminator

      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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          Reversible tumorigenesis by MYC in hematopoietic lineages.

          The targeted repair of mutant protooncogenes or the inactivation of their gene products may be a specific and effective therapy for human neoplasia. To examine this possibility, we have used the tetracycline regulatory system to generate transgenic mice that conditionally express the MYC protooncogene in hematopoietic cells. Sustained expression of the MYC transgene culminated in the formation of malignant T cell lymphomas and acute myleoid leukemias. The subsequent inactivation of the transgene caused regression of established tumors. Tumor regression was associated with rapid proliferative arrest, differentiation and apoptosis of tumor cells, and resumption of normal host hematopoiesis. We conclude that even though tumorigenesis is a multistep process, remediation of a single genetic lesion may be sufficient to reverse malignancy.
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            In vivo gene transfer with retroviral vector-producer cells for treatment of experimental brain tumors.

            Direct in situ introduction of exogenous genes into proliferating tumors could provide an effective therapeutic approach for treatment of localized tumors. Rats with a cerebral glioma were given an intratumoral stereotaxic injection of murine fibroblasts that were producing a retroviral vector in which the herpes simplex thymidine kinase (HS-tk) gene had been inserted. After 5 days during which the HS-tk retroviral vectors that were produced in situ transduced the neighboring proliferating glioma cells, the rats were treated with the anti-herpes drug ganciclovir. Gliomas in the ganciclovir- and vector-treated rats regressed completely both macroscopically and microscopically. This technique exploits what was previously considered to be a disadvantage of retroviral vectors--that is, their inability to transfer genes into nondividing cells. Instead, this feature of retroviruses is used to target gene delivery to dividing tumor cells and to spare nondividing neural tissue.
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              Essential role for oncogenic Ras in tumour maintenance.

              Advanced malignancy in tumours represents the phenotypic endpoint of successive genetic lesions that affect the function and regulation of oncogenes and tumour-suppressor genes. The established tumour is maintained through complex and poorly understood host-tumour interactions that guide processes such as angiogenesis and immune sequestration. The many different genetic alterations that accompany tumour genesis raise questions as to whether experimental cancer-promoting mutations remain relevant during tumour maintenance. Here we show that melanoma genesis and maintenance are strictly dependent upon expression of H-RasV12G in a doxycycline-inducible H-Ras12G mouse melanoma model null for the tumour suppressor INK4a. Withdrawal of doxycycline and H-RasV12G down-regulation resulted in clinical and histological regression of primary and explanted tumours. The initial stages of regression involved marked apoptosis in the tumour cells and host-derived endothelial cells. Although the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was found to be Ras-dependent in vitro, the failure of persistent endogenous and enforced VEGF expression to sustain tumour viability indicates that the tumour-maintaining actions of activated Ras extend beyond the regulation of VEGF expression in vivo. Our results provide genetic evidence that H-RasV12G is important in both the genesis and maintenance of solid tumours.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                June 06 2000
                June 06 2000
                : 97
                : 12
                : 6242-6244
                Article
                10.1073/pnas.97.12.6242
                © 2000
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