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      Sarcoidosis Manifesting as Liver Granuloma With Asteroid Bodies

      case-report

      1 , 2 , , 3

      ,

      Cureus

      Cureus

      asteroid bodies, sarcoidosis, liver granuloma, elevated alkaline phosphatase, autoimmune disorder

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          Abstract

          Sarcoidosis is an autoimmune disease, which most commonly affects the lungs and lymph nodes and is characterized with non-caseating granulomas. Hepatic involvement in sarcoidosis occurs in less than 1% of patients. Most patients with hepatic sarcoidosis remain asymptomatic with only laboratory abnormalities. We present the case of a 59-year-old man with sarcoidosis who was evaluated for an elevation of alkaline phosphatase. Laboratory test results revealed an alkaline phosphatase level of 230 U/L, with normal alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, and albumin. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis with intravenous contrast of the liver showed a mildly enlarged liver. Liver biopsy sections showed steatosis, active steatohepatitis, and focal portal granuloma formation with asteroid body. The patient was scheduled regular liver function tests and clinical monitoring. Most patients with hepatic sarcoidosis remain asymptomatic with only laboratory abnormalities such as elevation of liver enzymes and alkaline phosphatase. Although liver involvement is common in gastrointestinal sarcoidosis, progression to liver cirrhosis is rare in such patients. While symptomatic patients may be managed with systematic prednisone, asymptomatic patients may require only laboratory and clinical monitoring.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Sarcoidosis.

          Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown cause that is characterised by the formation of immune granulomas in various organs, mainly the lungs and the lymphatic system. Studies show that sarcoidosis might be the result of an exaggerated granulomatous reaction after exposure to unidentified antigens in individuals who are genetically susceptible. Several new insights have been made, particularly with regards to the diagnosis and care of some important manifestations of sarcoidosis. The indications for endobronchial ultrasound in diagnosis and for PET in the assessment of inflammatory activity are now better specified. Recognition of unexplained persistent disabling symptoms, fatigue, small-fibre neurological impairment, cognitive failure, and changes to health state and quality of life, has improved. Mortality in patients with sarcoidosis is higher than that of the general population, mainly due to pulmonary fibrosis. Predicted advances for the future are finding the cause of sarcoidosis, and the elucidation of relevant biomarkers, reliable endpoints, and new efficient treatments, particularly in patients with refractory sarcoidosis, lung fibrosis, and those with persistent disabling symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Clinical characteristics of patients in a case control study of sarcoidosis.

            Sarcoidosis may be affected by sex, race, and age. A Case Control Etiologic Study of Sarcoidosis (ACCESS) enrolled 736 patients with sarcoidosis within 6 mo of diagnosis from 10 clinical centers in the United States. Using the ACCESS sarcoidosis assessment system, we determined organ involvement for the whole group and for subgroups differentiated by sex, race, and age (less than 40 yr or 40 yr and older). The study population was heterogeneous in terms of race (53% white, 44% black), sex (64% female, 36% male), and age (46% or = 40 yr old). Women were more likely to have eye and neurologic involvement (chi(2) = 4.74, p < 0.05 and chi(2) = 4.60, p < 0.05 respectively), have erythema nodosum (chi(2) = 7.28, p < 0.01), and to be age 40 yr or over (chi(2) = 6.07, p < 0.02) whereas men were more likely to be hypercalcemic (chi(2) = 7.38, p < 0.01). Black subjects were more likely to have skin involvement other than erythema nodosum (chi(2) = 5.47, p < 0.05), and eye (chi(2) = 13.8, p < 0.0001), liver (chi(2) = 23.3, p < 0.0001), bone marrow (chi(2) = 18.8, p < 0.001), and extrathoracic lymph node involvement (chi(2) = 7.21, p < 0.01). We conclude that the initial presentation of sarcoidosis is related to sex, race, and age.
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              Familial aggregation of sarcoidosis. A case-control etiologic study of sarcoidosis (ACCESS).

              Despite reports of familial clustering of sarcoidosis, little empirical evidence exists that disease risk in family members of sarcoidosis cases is greater than that in the general population. To address this question, we estimated sarcoidosis familial relative risk using data on disease occurrence in 10,862 first- and 17,047 second-degree relatives of 706 age, sex, race, and geographically matched cases and controls who participated in the multicenter ACCESS (A Case-Control Etiology Study of Sarcoidosis) study from 1996 to 1999. Familial relative risk estimates were calculated using a logistic regression technique that accounted for the dependence between relatives. Sibs had the highest relative risk (odds ratio [OR] = 5.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.1-15.9), followed by avuncular relationships (OR = 5.7; 95% CI = 1.6-20.7), grandparents (OR = 5.2; 95% CI = 1.5-18.0), and then parents (OR = 3.8; 95% CI = 1.2-11.3). In a multivariate model fit to the parents and sibs data, the familial relative risk adjusted for age, sex, relative class, and shared environment was 4.7 (95% CI = 2.3-9.7). White cases had a markedly higher familial relative risk compared with African-American cases (18.0 versus 2.8; p = 0.098). In summary, a significant elevated risk of sarcoidosis was observed among first- and second-degree relatives of sarcoidosis cases compared with relatives of matched control subjects.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cureus
                Cureus
                2168-8184
                Cureus
                Cureus (Palo Alto (CA) )
                2168-8184
                12 September 2021
                September 2021
                : 13
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Internal Medicine, University of Missouri Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, USA
                [2 ] Gastroenterology, University of Missouri Kansas City, Kansas City, USA
                [3 ] Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Missouri Kansas City, Kansas City, USA
                Author notes
                Article
                10.7759/cureus.17915
                8439400
                Copyright © 2021, Muhanna et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Internal Medicine
                Pathology
                Gastroenterology

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