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      Improvement of Anemia in Hemodialysis Patients Treated by Hemodiafiltration with High-Volume On-Line-Prepared Substitution Fluid

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          Background: Hemodiafiltration (HDF) is associated with a lower incidence of neuropathy, carpal tunnel syndrome, joint pain, and partial correction of anemia. HDF with on-line-prepared substitution fluid (OL HDF), as compared with conventional hemodialysis, increases the treatment tolerance and, as compared with standard HDF, avoids storage problems and allows a higher substitution volume at low cost. Methods: Thirty-two hemodialysis patients treated by OL HDF for at least 9 months were studied. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, iron metabolism, serum albumin, dialysis dose and dry body weight were determined under a settled condition with regular hemodialysis 3 months before the transfer to OL HDF. The same parameters were analyzed 3, 6 and 9 months after the beginning of the new treatment modality. Results: During OL HDF, hemoglobin values significantly increased in patients without addition of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO): baseline vs. 6 months 11 ± 1.7 vs. 12 ± 1.8 g/dl (p < 0.01); baseline vs. 9 months 11 ± 1.7 vs. 12 ± 1.6 g/dl (p < 0.05). In patients on a maintenance dose of rhuEPO, this could be significantly reduced, while the target hemoglobin levels were maintained (10.6 ± 0.9 g/dl): baseline 99.8 ± 50.4 U/kg/week, 3rd month 76.2 ± 43 U/kg/week, 6th month 64.3 ± 37 U/kg/week, and 9th month 59.4 ± 38.6 U/kg/week (p = 0.007, p = 0.0006, and p = 0.0007, respectively, vs. baseline). Iron metabolism, dialysis dose, dry body weight and serum albumin levels did not significantly change during the follow-up period. Further, a stability of the rHuEPO supplementation was observed in 14 patients followed up for 24 months. Conclusions: OL HDF influences anemia and rHuEPO dose. It allows considerable anemia correction in patients without rHuEPO treatment, while it significantly reduces rHuEPO doses in those on rHuEPO treatment as compared with standard hemodialysis. The rHuEPO costs are consequently reduced.

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          The intensity of hemodialysis and the response to erythropoietin in patients with end-stage renal disease.

          Anemia (characterized by a hematocrit of 30 percent or lower) persists in 40 to 60 percent of patients treated for end-stage renal disease with maintenance hemodialysis, despite concomitant erythropoietin (epoetin) therapy. We tested the hypothesis that inadequate dialysis is a key reason for the insufficient response to erythropoietin in patients with end-stage renal disease who are receiving hemodialysis. We prospectively studied 135 randomly selected patients undergoing hemodialysis who had been receiving intravenous erythropoietin for at least four months. The adequacy of dialysis was assessed by measuring the percent reduction in the blood urea nitrogen concentration and the serum albumin concentration. The hematocrit was measured weekly for four weeks, transferrin saturation was measured, and coexisting illnesses were documented. To determine the effect of an increased level of dialysis on the hematocrit, the thrice-weekly schedule of dialysis was increased to raise the mean urea-reduction value from 60.7 to 72 percent for six weeks in 20 consecutive patients whose base-line urea-reduction value was less than 65 percent. The change in the hematocrit in these patients was compared with that observed in the next 20 patients who had an equivalent base-line urea-reduction value but whose level of dialysis was not altered. The mean hematocrit of the entire group was 29.2 +/- 4 percent, and the mean thrice-weekly dose of erythropoietin was 59 +/- 29 U per kilogram of body weight. The mean serum albumin concentration was 3.8 +/- 0.4 g per deciliter, the mean urea-reduction value was 62 +/- 4.8 percent, and the mean transferrin saturation was 20 +/- 9 percent. Multiple regression analysis revealed direct correlations between the hematocrit and the serum albumin concentration (P = 0.009) and between the hematocrit and the urea-reduction value (P = 0.012) after adjustment for other factors. A logistic-regression analysis indicated that an 11 percent increase in the urea-reduction value doubled the odds that a patient would have a hematocrit above 30 percent. After six weeks of increased intensity of dialysis in 20 patients with base-line urea-reduction values of less than 65 percent, the mean (+/- SE) hematocrit rose from 28.4 +/- 0.78 percent to 32.3 +/- 0.71 percent (P = 0.002); there was no significant change in a control group of 20 patients with equivalent base-line urea-reduction values in whom the dialysis level was not altered (28.2 +/- 0.84 percent to 26.3 +/- 0.85 percent; P = 0.175). In patients with end-stage renal disease, inadequate hemodialysis is associated with a suboptimal response to erythropoietin therapy. Increasing the intensity of dialysis in patients with anemia who are receiving inadequate dialysis results in a significant increase in the hematocrit.
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            Microbiologic Purity of Dialysate:Rationale and Te chnical Aspects

            Dialysate purity has become a major concern in hemodialysis since it has been shown that microbial-derived products were stimulating the production and the release of proinflammatory cytokines in hemodialysis patients. This chronic microinflammatory state induced by hemodialysis has been putatively implicated in the development of dialysis-related pathology. In order to prevent risk related to these offenders and to reduce patient/dialysis interaction, it appears highly desirable to use ultrapure dialysis fluid aiming at sterility and apyrogenicity on a regular basis. Ultrapure dialysate results from a complex chain of production where purity grade relies on the weaker link of this chain. Technical aspects and pitfalls in the production of ultrapure dialysate are summarized in this paper. Production of ultrapure dialysate may be achieved on a routine basis, provided adequate components are used, and hygienic handling is regularly ensured. It includes the use of ultrapure water, clean and or sterile electrolytic concentrates (liquid or powder), implementation of ultrafilters on hemodialysis machines, microbiologic monitoring and hygienic handling of the chain with frequent disinfection. Safety and reliability of ultrapure dialysate production relies on a continuous quality assurance process, where results are coupled to corrective action in a feedback loop process.

              Author and article information

              Blood Purif
              Blood Purification
              S. Karger AG
              12 August 2002
              : 20
              : 4
              : 357-363
              Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, Desio Hospital, Desio, Italy
              63104 Blood Purif 2002;20:357–363
              © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Figures: 4, References: 30, Pages: 7
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