Khine Wut Yee Kyaw , 1 , 8 , Srinath Satyanarayana 2 , Khaing Hnin Phyo 3 , Nang Thu Thu Kyaw 1 , Aye Aye Mon 3 , Than Than Lwin 4 , Thet Ko Aung 3 , Myo Minn Oo 1 , Zaw Zaw Aung 4 , Thurain Htun 5 , Nang Seng Noon Kham 4 , Theingi Mya 6 , Ajay M. V. Kumar 2 , 7 , Htun Nyunt Oo 4
4 December 2018
Early initiation and longer duration of anti-retroviral therapy either as prophylaxis (pARV) or lifelong treatment (ART) in HIV-positive pregnant women prior to delivery has a huge impact in reducing mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, maternal morbidity, mortality and increasing retention in care. In this study, we aimed to determine the following in a ‘prevention of mother-to-child transmission’ (PMTCT) programme in Central Women Hospital, Mandalay, Myanmar: i) uptake of ART and factors associated with the uptake ii) duration of ART/ pARV received by HIV-positive pregnant women prior to delivery, iii) factors associated with ART/ pARV initiation after delivery and iv) factors associated with shorter duration of ART/ pARV (≤ 8 weeks prior to delivery).
This was a retrospective cohort study using routinely collected data from PMTCT programme. We used multivariable Cox proportional Hazard model or log binomial models to assess the association between socio-demographic and clinical factors with a) uptake of ART/pARV, b) initiation of ART/pARV after delivery, c) shorter (≤8 weeks) duration of ART/PARV prior to delivery.
Of the 670 ART naïve HIV-positive women enrolled to PMTCT programme between March 2011 and December 2016, 588 (88%) were initiated on ART/pARV. In adjusted analysis, only pregnancy stage at enrolment was significantly associated with initiation of ART/pARV. Of 585 who had delivered babies on or before the censor date, 522 (89%) were on ART/pARV. Women who lived outside Mandalay were more likely to be initiated on ART after delivery (i.e., delayed ART initiation in those on ART). Among women who were initiated on ART/pARV before delivery ( n = 468), only 59% got ART/pARV for > 8 weeks before delivery. Women whose spouses’ HIV status was not recorded had 40% higher risk of short duration of ART/pARV.
This study shows high uptake of ART/pARV among those enrolled into the PMTCT programme. However, about one in eight pregnant women did not receive ART before delivery. Among those initiated on ART/pARV before delivery, nearly half of them received ART/pARV for less than 8 weeks prior to delivery. These aspects need to be improved in order to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV.