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      Distinct Membrane Domains on Endosomes in the Recycling Pathway Visualized by Multicolor Imaging of Rab4, Rab5, and Rab11

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          Abstract

          Two endosome populations involved in recycling of membranes and receptors to the plasma membrane have been described, the early and the recycling endosome. However, this distinction is mainly based on the flow of cargo molecules and the spatial distribution of these membranes within the cell. To get insights into the membrane organization of the recycling pathway, we have studied Rab4, Rab5, and Rab11, three regulatory components of the transport machinery. Following transferrin as cargo molecule and GFP-tagged Rab proteins we could show that cargo moves through distinct domains on endosomes. These domains are occupied by different Rab proteins, revealing compartmentalization within the same continuous membrane. Endosomes are comprised of multiple combinations of Rab4, Rab5, and Rab11 domains that are dynamic but do not significantly intermix over time. Three major populations were observed: one that contains only Rab5, a second with Rab4 and Rab5, and a third containing Rab4 and Rab11. These membrane domains display differential pharmacological sensitivity, reflecting their biochemical and functional diversity. We propose that endosomes are organized as a mosaic of different Rab domains created through the recruitment of specific effector proteins, which cooperatively act to generate a restricted environment on the membrane.

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          Most cited references 48

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          EEA1 links PI(3)K function to Rab5 regulation of endosome fusion.

          GTPases and lipid kinases regulate membrane traffic along the endocytic pathway by mechanisms that are not completely understood. Fusion between early endosomes requires phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) activity as well as the small GTPase Rab5. Excess Rab5-GTP complex restores endosome fusion when PI(3)K is inhibited. Here we identify the early-endosomal autoantigen EEA1 which binds the PI(3)K product phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate, as a new Rab5 effector that is required for endosome fusion. The association of EEA1 with the endosomal membrane requires Rab5-GTP and PI(3)K activity, and excess Rab5-GTP stabilizes the membrane association of EEA1 even when PI(3)K is inhibited. The identification of EEA1 as a direct Rab5 effector provides a molecular link between PI(3)K and Rab5, and its restricted distribution to early endosomes indicates that EEA1 may confer directionality to Rab5-dependent endocytic transport.
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            The Rab5 effector EEA1 is a core component of endosome docking.

            Intracellular membrane docking and fusion requires the interplay between soluble factors and SNAREs. The SNARE hypothesis postulates that pairing between a vesicular v-SNARE and a target membrane z-SNARE is the primary molecular interaction underlying the specificity of vesicle targeting as well as lipid bilayer fusion. This proposal is supported by recent studies using a minimal artificial system. However, several observations demonstrate that SNAREs function at multiple transport steps and can pair promiscuously, questioning the role of SNAREs in conveying vesicle targeting. Moreover, other proteins have been shown to be important in membrane docking or tethering. Therefore, if the minimal machinery is defined as the set of proteins sufficient to reproduce in vitro the fidelity of vesicle targeting, docking and fusion as in vivo, then SNAREs are not sufficient to specify vesicle targeting. Endosome fusion also requires cytosolic factors and is regulated by the small GTPase Rab5. Here we show that Rab5-interacting soluble proteins can completely substitute for cytosol in an in vivo endosome-fusion assay, and that the Rab5 effector EEA1 is the only factor necessary to confer minimal fusion activity. Rab5 and other associated proteins seem to act upstream of EEA1, implying that Rab5 effectors comprise both regulatory molecules and mechanical components of the membrane transport machinery. We further show that EEA1 mediates endosome docking and, together with SNAREs, leads to membrane fusion.
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              Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase encoded by yeast VPS34 gene essential for protein sorting.

              The VPS34 gene product (Vps34p) is required for protein sorting to the lysosome-like vacuole of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Vps34p shares significant sequence similarity with the catalytic subunit of bovine phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase [the 110-kilodalton (p110) subunit of PI 3-kinase], which is known to interact with activated cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases. Yeast strains deleted for the VPS34 gene or carrying vps34 point mutations lacked detectable PI 3-kinase activity and exhibited severe defects in vacuolar protein sorting. Overexpression of Vps34p resulted in an increase in PI 3-kinase activity, and this activity was specifically precipitated with antisera to Vps34p. VPS34 encodes a yeast PI 3-kinase, and this enzyme appears to regulate intracellular protein trafficking decisions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cell Biol
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0021-9525
                1540-8140
                15 May 2000
                : 149
                : 4
                : 901-914
                Affiliations
                [a ]Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, 01307 Dresden, Germany
                [b ]Advanced Light Microscopy Facility, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
                Article
                0002075
                2174575
                10811830
                © 2000 The Rockefeller University Press
                Categories
                Original Article

                Cell biology

                endocytosis, eea1, transferrin recycling, rab proteins

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