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      Anti-parasitic effects of water-soluble alkaloid fractions from ethanolic extracts of Sophora moorcroftiana seeds in Caenorhabditis elegans

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          Abstract

          Parasite infections of humans and animals remain a major global health problem, with limited choice of drugs being available to the treatment of parasitosis in the clinic. Sophora moorcroftiana ( S. moorcroftiana) is a shrub that grows in Tibet Plateau of China. Decoction of the seeds has been used as a traditional Tibetan medicine to treat parasitosis for years. But the anti-parasitic effects of water-soluble fractions in the seeds need further investigation. In the present study, the water-soluble alkaloid fractions (E2) were obtained from S. moorcroftiana seeds by refluxing extraction with 60% ethanol and low polarity fraction (E2-a) and high polarity fraction (E2-b) were subsequently isolated from E2 using column chromatography. As a parasite model, Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans) were treated with different fractions and their survivals were recorded. The results showed that that E2-a induced a lower survival rate in C. elegans than E2-b and E2. The protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus ( E. granulosus) were cultured in the presence of E2-a. Compared with E2-b and E2, protoscoleces exhibited decreased survival rate following E2-a treatment. Furtherly, the effects of E2-a on the behavior, brood size, and lifespan of the worms were investigated. Body bend frequencies of the worms treated with the high concentration of E2-a were reduced by two-thirds compared with the control group ( P < 0.01). Compared with non-E2-a-treated group, exposure of nematodes to E2-a led to a decrease in head thrashes and pharyngeal pumps frequency ( P < 0.01). E2-a treatment resulted in a significantly lower brood size ( P < 0.01). Additional E2-a treatment induced a significantly shortened lifespan, compared with the control ( P < 0.05). These findings indicated that water-soluble fraction E2-a from S. moorcroftiana seeds was a potential helminthic agent.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Sydney Brenner on the Genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans

           B. Goldstein (2016)
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            A New Golden Age of Natural Products Drug Discovery.

             Ben Shen (2015)
            The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to William C. Campbell, Satoshi Omura, and Youyou Tu for the discovery of avermectins and artemisinin, respectively, therapies that revolutionized the treatment of devastating parasite diseases. With the recent technological advances, a New Golden Age of natural products drug discovery is dawning.
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              Current Threat of Triclabendazole Resistance in Fasciola hepatica.

              Triclabendazole (TCBZ) is the only chemical that kills early immature and adult Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) but widespread resistance to the drug greatly compromises fluke control in livestock and humans. The mode of action of TCBZ and mechanism(s) underlying parasite resistance to the drug are not known. Due to the high prevalence of TCBZ resistance (TCBZ-R), effective management of drug resistance is now critical for sustainable livestock production. Here, we discuss the current status of TCBZ-R in F. hepatica, the global distribution of resistance observed in livestock, the possible mechanism(s) of drug action, the proposed mechanisms and genetic basis of resistance, and the prospects for future control of liver fluke infections using an integrated parasite management (IPM) approach.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CJNM
                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                Elsevier
                1875-5364
                20 September 2018
                : 16
                : 9
                : 665-673
                Affiliations
                1Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
                2Key Lab of Preclinical Study for New Drugs of Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000, China
                3School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
                4Department of Microbiology, Medical College, Northwest Minzu University, Lanzhou 730000, China
                Author notes
                *Corresponding authors: MA Xing-Ming, E-mails: maxm@ 123456lzu.edu.cn ; DONG Kai-Zhong, dkz@ 123456xbmu.edu.cn

                These authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

                Article
                S1875-5364(18)30106-7
                10.1016/S1875-5364(18)30106-7
                Copyright © 2018 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 31360604
                Funded by: Lanzhou University Innovation and Entrepreneurship Fund for College Students
                Award ID: 2015073001362
                This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31360604) and Lanzhou University Innovation and Entrepreneurship Fund for College Students (No. 2015073001362).

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