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      New section and species in Talaromyces

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          Talaromyces is a monophyletic genus containing seven sections. The number of species in Talaromyces grows rapidly due to reliable and complete sequence data contributed from all over the world. In this study agricultural soil samples from Fujiang, Guangdong, Jiangxi, Shandong, Tibet and Zhejiang provinces of China were collected and analyzed for fungal diversity. Based on a polyphasic approach including phylogenetic analysis of partial ITS, BenA, CaM and RPB2 gene sequences, macro- and micro-morphological analyses, six of them could not be assigned to any described species, and one cannot be assigned to any known sections. Morphological characters as well as their phylogenetic relationship with other Talaromyces species are presented for these putative new species. Penicillium resedanum is combined in Talaromyces section Subinflati as T. resedanus .

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          Phylogeny of Penicillium and the segregation of Trichocomaceae into three families

          Species of Trichocomaceae occur commonly and are important to both industry and medicine. They are associated with food spoilage and mycotoxin production and can occur in the indoor environment, causing health hazards by the formation of β-glucans, mycotoxins and surface proteins. Some species are opportunistic pathogens, while others are exploited in biotechnology for the production of enzymes, antibiotics and other products. Penicillium belongs phylogenetically to Trichocomaceae and more than 250 species are currently accepted in this genus. In this study, we investigated the relationship of Penicillium to other genera of Trichocomaceae and studied in detail the phylogeny of the genus itself. In order to study these relationships, partial RPB1, RPB2 (RNA polymerase II genes), Tsr1 (putative ribosome biogenesis protein) and Cct8 (putative chaperonin complex component TCP-1) gene sequences were obtained. The Trichocomaceae are divided in three separate families: Aspergillaceae, Thermoascaceae and Trichocomaceae. The Aspergillaceae are characterised by the formation flask-shaped or cylindrical phialides, asci produced inside cleistothecia or surrounded by Hülle cells and mainly ascospores with a furrow or slit, while the Trichocomaceae are defined by the formation of lanceolate phialides, asci borne within a tuft or layer of loose hyphae and ascospores lacking a slit. Thermoascus and Paecilomyces, both members of Thermoascaceae, also form ascospores lacking a furrow or slit, but are differentiated from Trichocomaceae by the production of asci from croziers and their thermotolerant or thermophilic nature. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Penicillium is polyphyletic. The genus is re-defined and a monophyletic genus for both anamorphs and teleomorphs is created (Penicillium sensu stricto). The genera Thysanophora, Eupenicillium, Chromocleista, Hemicarpenteles and Torulomyces belong in Penicillium s. str. and new combinations for the species belonging to these genera are proposed. Analysis of Penicillium below genus rank revealed the presence of 25 clades. A new classification system including both anamorph and teleomorph species is proposed and these 25 clades are treated here as sections. An overview of species belonging to each section is presented. Taxonomic novelties: New sections, all in Penicillium: sect. Sclerotiora Houbraken & Samson, sect. Charlesia Houbraken & Samson, sect. Thysanophora Houbraken & Samson,sect. Ochrosalmonea Houbraken & Samson, sect. Cinnamopurpurea Houbraken & Samson, Fracta Houbraken & Samson, sect. Stolkia Houbraken & Samson, sect. Gracilenta Houbraken & Samson, sect. Citrina Houbraken & Samson, sect. Turbata Houbraken & Samson, sect. Paradoxa Houbraken & Samson, sect. Canescentia Houbraken & Samson. New combinations: Penicillium asymmetricum (Subramanian & Sudha) Houbraken & Samson, P. bovifimosum (Tuthill & Frisvad) Houbraken & Samson, P. glaucoalbidum (Desmazières) Houbraken & Samson, P. laeve (K. Ando & Manoch) Houbraken & Samson, P. longisporum (Kendrick) Houbraken & Samson, P. malachiteum (Yaguchi & Udagawa) Houbraken & Samson, P. ovatum (K. Ando & Nawawi) Houbraken & Samson, P. parviverrucosum (K. Ando & Pitt) Houbraken & Samson, P. saturniforme (Wang & Zhuang) Houbraken & Samson, P. taiwanense (Matsushima) Houbraken & Samson. New names: Penicillium coniferophilum Houbraken & Samson, P. hennebertii Houbraken & Samson, P. melanostipe Houbraken & Samson, P. porphyreum Houbraken & Samson.
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            Disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection in southeast Asia.

            Disseminated infection with the fungal pathogen Penicillium marneffei is, after extrapulmonary tuberculosis and cryptococcal meningitis, the third most common opportunistic infection in HIV disease in northern Thailand. We report the clinical, microbiological, and therapeutic features of a large series of HIV-infected adults with disseminated P marneffei infection. From August, 1987, to June, 1992, 92 patients with P marneffei infection confirmed by culture were seen at Chiang Mai University Hospital, of whom 86 were also infected with HIV. Clinical information was available for 80 of these patients. The most common presenting symptoms and signs were fever (92%), anaemia (77%), weight loss (76%), and skin lesions (71%). 87% of patients presenting with skin lesions had generalised papules with central umbilication. Presumptive diagnosis was made in 50 patients by microscopic examination of Wright's-stained bone-marrow aspirate and/or touch smears of skin biopsy or lymph-node biopsy specimens. Most patients who were diagnosed responded initially to amphotericin or itraconazole, whereas most who were not diagnosed and treated died. 12 patients relapsed within 6 months of cessation of treatment. P marneffei has become an important pathogen of HIV-associated opportunistic infection in Thailand.
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              Fungal infections in HIV/AIDS


                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                07 July 2020
                : 68
                : 75-113
                [1 ] China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China Institute of Microbiology Beijing China
                [2 ] State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China Institute of Materia Medica Beijing China
                [3 ] Microbiome Research Center, Moon (Guangzhou) Biotech Ltd., Guangzhou 510535, China Microbiome Research Center Guangzhou China
                [4 ] Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute Utrecht Netherlands
                [5 ] Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark Technical University of Denmark Kongens Lyngby Denmark
                [6 ] Novozymes China, No. 14, Xinxi Rd, Shangdi, Beijing, China Unaffiliated Beijing China
                [7 ] Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources Collection and Preservation, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning Beijing China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Xian-Zhi Jiang ( jxz@ 123456moonbio.com ); Robert A. Samson ( r.samson@ 123456wi.knaw.nl )

                Academic editor: Pedro Crous

                Bing-Da Sun, Amanda J. Chen, Jos Houbraken, Jens C. Frisvad, Wen-Ping Wu, Hai-Lei Wei, Yu-Guang Zhou, Xian-Zhi Jiang, Robert A. Samson

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Open Funding Project of the State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines No. GTZK201903 and Beijing science and technology plan No. Z191100004019025
                Research Article
                Biodiversity & Conservation


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